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Nephron begins as a
bowman's capsule in the
cortex and leads to a highly
coiled proximal convoluted
tubule. This leads to the u
shaped loop of henle which
is in the medulla the
ascending limb of the loop of
henle leads to the distil
convoluted tubule in the
cortex which leads to the
collecting duct.…read more

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·Blood flows into the glomerulus from the afferent arteriole
the afferent arteriole is wider than efferent arteriole. Ensures
blood in glomerulus is under increased pressure- higher than
in the Bowman's capsule providing the necessary hydrostatic
filtration pressure.
·The filtration membrane is the basement membrane of
glycoprotein's surrounding the endothelium and capillaries the
inner layer of the bowman's capsule consists of podocytes
which provide support for the membrane.
·Water and crystalloid solutes including urea are filtered from
the blood into the bowman's capsule. Cells platelets and
proteins with a molecular mass greater than 69000 do not pass
through the undamaged filtration membrane.
·Hormones in the blood pass into the filtrate which allows
urine analysis to test for pregnancy or misuse of anabolic
steroids.…read more

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· Glucose, amino acids, vitamins and some ions are reabsorbed by
the proximal convoluted tubule.
· Sodium ions are actively transported out of the PCT cells through
the plasma membranes next to blood capillaries, so sodium diffuses
into the cells from the filtrate via co transporter proteins, bringing
glucose into the cells with the sodium ions.
· The PCT cells have microvilli to give a large surface are of contact
with the filtrate and many mitochondria to provide ATP for active
· Ions are absorbed from the filtrate by distil convoluted tubule cells…read more

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