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Dialysis.
· Dialysis replaces kidney function; it filters and
cleans the blood.
· A fistula (permanent access point artery) is
grafted in the arm, for haemodialysis.
· For peritoneal, a permanent catheter is inserted
into the abdomen and left protruding.
· It depends on diffusion along a concentration
gradient from blood to dialysis fluid.…read more

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Process of Dialysis.
· A thin layer of natural tissue (in Peritoneal Dialysis) or of
synthetic plastic (in Haemodialysis), known as the
dialysis membrane, keeps the blood apart from the
dialysis solution (also called the dialysis fluid, or the
dialysate).
· Blood cells are too big to pass through the dialysis
membrane, but wastes and water can diffuse through it
into the dialysis solution.
· Diffusion is complete. Body wastes have diffused
through the membrane. There are equal amounts of
waste in the blood and the dialysis solution.
· Wastes are removed by removing the dialysis fluid.…read more

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Patient undergoing Haemodialysis.
Patient undergoing Haemodialysis.…read more

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Pros + Cons of Dialysis
· Dialysis, whether peritoneal or haemodialysis, is a major
tie to a medical institution.
· Haemodialysis requires hospital attendance 3-7 times a
week, for periods of 3-6 hours.
· Even peritoneal dialysis requires bags of fluid to be
changed every 3-6 hours, meaning the patient is never
able to escape their kidney failure.
· However dialysis is safer than having a transplant, as the
operation can be dangerous, and the new organ can be
rejected.…read more

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Kidney Transplants.
· Transplants
· Failing kidneys are left in the body, a new kidney is
inserted into the groin and attached.
· Gives a patient independence from the dialysis machine
and lets them live a new lease of life.
· Strong risk of rejection, immunosuppressant drugs must
be taken every day of the life.
· Only lasts around 9 years but multiple transplants are
possible.
· Donor can be recently dead of natural causes, a related
family member, or unrelated (alive).…read more

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