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B io Factsheet
September 1997 Number 1

The kidney: excretion and osmoregulation
Kidneys have two main functions.
1. They are excretory organs, removing nitrogenous and other waste from the body.
2. They play an important part in maintaining a constant internal environment by helping to regulate pH, water and sodium…

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The kidney: excretion and osmoregulation Bio Factsheet

A. Ultrafiltration (Figure 3).
The Bowman's capsule contains a dense capillary network called the Typical exam question
Ultrafiltration often comes up in application questions, i.e. those
glomerulus. Blood flows into these capillaries through a wide afferent
questions which test a candidate's ability to…

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The kidney: excretion and osmoregulation Bio Factsheet

C. Osmoregulation (Figure 6)
The ability to produce concentrated urine is important in allowing terrestrial Figure 6. Distal convoluted
mammals to conserve water. The loop of Henle and the collecting duct tubule
form a system known as a countercurrent multiplier whose function is…

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The kidney: excretion and osmoregulation Bio Factsheet

Practice questions 4. The diagram represents part of a mammalian kidney nephron.
Semicolons indicate marking points.
1. The diagram shows a cell from the proximal convoluted tubule in the
nephron. afferent
arteriole distal
efferent arteriole tubule

2 A

2 3


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