Key words for Unit 1 OCR AS Biology module 1

Key words for Unit 1 OCR AS Biology Module 1

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Key words
Diffusion: The net movement of molecules or ions in a gas or liquid from an area of high
concentration to an area where they are less concentrated.
Faciliated diffusion: The passive movement of molecules across membranes down their
concentration gradient, which is aided by transport (carrier) protein molecules.
Protein: A polymer consisting of many amino acid monomers covalently bonded together.
Concentration gradient: The difference in concentration of a substance between two regions.
ATP: a molecule used to store energy temporarily in organisms.
Kinetic energy: Energy of movement.
Photosynthesis: Process by which plants, some bacteria and some protoctists make food using
carbon dioxide, water and sunlight energy
Microvilli: Folds in the membrane of a cell that increase its surface area.
Channel protein: A protein pore that spans a membrane, through which very small ions and water
soluble molecules may pass.
Glucose: A 6-carbon monosaccharide sugar
Organelle : Structure inside a cell. Each organelle has a specific function

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Cell surface membrane : The membrane that surrounds every cell, forming the selectively
permeable boundary between the cell and its environment. It is made up of a double layer of
phospholipids with embedded proteins.
Respiration : The process in which energy is released from complex molecules, such as glucose,
within cells and transferred to molecules of ATP.
Amino Acid : An organic compound that contains both an amino group (­NH2) and a carboxyl group
(­COOH). Amino acids are the monomers of protein molecules.…read more

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Complementary : Refers to structures that fit together because their shapes and/or charges match
Endo reticulum : A series of membrane-bound, flattened sacs extending from the outer nuclear
membrane through the cytoplasm. It may appear rough (rough ER) when ribosomes are attached to
the outer surface, and it is involved with synthesis of proteins.
Vesicle : A membrane-bound sac found in cells and used to transport materials around the cell.
Golgi appuratus : Membrane-bound organelle in eukaryote cells.…read more

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Solute: A solid that dissolves in a liquid.
partially permeable membrane: A membrane that will allow some molecules to pass through but will
not allow some others to pass through.
Plasmolysis: Detachment of the plasma membrane from the cell wall as the cytoplasm shrinks when
water is lost from a plant cell.
haemolysis: (First observed in red blood cells.…read more


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