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Deviation from social When people are going against society's accepted codes of behaviour
Deviation from ideal When a person does not meet criteria considered to be normal healthy
mental health functioning
Failure to function When a person cannot maintain social relationships or a job
Statistically infrequent Behaviour which is uncommon. Statistically infrequent behaviour falls
behaviour outside the range which is typical for most people.
Aversion therapy A technique which uses unpleasant of painful stimuli with the aim of
changing behaviour patterns
Biological model A model which states that psychological disorders are caused, at least in
part, by biological factors such as neurotransmitter imbalance and genetic
Id The unconscious mind which is the source of desires and impulses which
spring from innate drives.
Ego The conscious part of the mind which keeps thoughts and actions in line with
the demands of the wider society.
Superego The part of the mind which contains moral values - what people would like
to be and think they ought to be.
Ego defences The various strategies used by the Ego to defend itself against Id impulses
and traumatic experiences
Repression The most important Ego defence. It prevents Id impulses and traumatic
memories from entering conscious awareness.
Free association A technique used in psychoanalytic therapy in which that patient lets their
mind wander freely.
Classical conditioning A form of learning based on an association between two stimuli
Operant conditioning A form of learning based on the use of reinforcement
Positive reinforcement The encouragement of behaviours by means of rewards
Negative reinforcement The encouragement of behaviours by removing unpleasant events when
those behaviours occur.
Systematic desensitisation Confronting feared objects or situations in a calm and relaxed setting and
associating these feelings with them
Cognitive model A model which states that psychological disorders are caused by errors in
thinking, irrational assumptions and negative views of self, the world and
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Cognitive therapy A therapy which encourages people to identify, challenge and change
cognitive errors and negative thoughts
Psychodynamic model Psychodynamic assumptions - individuals abnormal behaviour determined
by underlying psychological conflicts, that a person is usually unaware of,
Freud. Caused by conflicts between the iD, ego and superego. Early
experiences such a traumas and unconsciously motivated behaviour
Antianxiety drugs or Drugs prescribed to reduce anxiety
Benzodiazepines Antianxiety drugs commonly known as minor tranquillisers. They decrease
arousal and reduce tension in the muscles.…read more