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KEY TERMS: DIET AND FOOD PRODUCTION
Adipose tissue This is the spare energy (extra calories) which is stored as fat
and this builds up as tissue (adipose) underneath the skin.
Autotroph An organism that does not require organic nutrients; plants
Balanced diet This contains a full range of nutrients in approximately the
correct proportions. The amount of energy in the diet should
be approximately equal to the amount of energy used by the
body each day.
Chylomicrons This contains a lot of lipid and very little protein. They are
formed in certain walls (of the ileum) from fats which have
been digested and absorbed.
FTO gene This is suggested to be a genetic reason relating to obesity,
research shows that heterozygous or homologous alleles
Heterotroph An organism that requires organic nutrients; all fungi and
animals are heterotrophs.
High density lipoproteins (HDLs) This contains a lot of protein and relatively small amounts of
lipid. They usually pick up cholesterol from body cells that
are dying or restructured cell membranes which are
transported to the liver.
Leptin A mutation in this gene can be linked to the control of
appetite. This is made in adipose tissue and has several
target organs such as the brain which suppresses appetite.
Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) This has more lipid and less protein than HDLs. They usually
carry lipids and cholesterol from the liver to other parts of
Malnutrition This is known as bad eating and refers to the result of any
diet that is seriously unbalanced.
Osteomalacia This occurs in adults, it is the softening and weakening of
bones because calcium is not deposited. This is caused by a
deficiency in vitamin D.
Osteoporosis This is caused by a deficiency in calcium.
Rickets This is the children's version of osteomalacia.
Xerophtalmia Drying of the cornea which is caused by a deficiency in