Key Philosophers of Liberalism, Anarchism, Socialism and Conservatism

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Hey, Hey, We're the Thinkers
Name Summary of their belief
Herbert Spencer Human society as an evolving organism, subject to natural laws of progress
John Locke Natural rights and natural laws ­ government had to be established by consent
John Stuart-Mill "Better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied"
Thomas Hill Green We have obligation to care for welfare others
Organic society
William Beveridge Stand for social justice
Liberty as a `good' available to all
Benjamin Disraeli Two nations
Edmund Burke "Good order is the foundation of all good things"
George Santayana Empiricism, scepticism, pragmatism ­ political action based on a knowledge of the past
Keith Joseph Cycle of deprivation
Michael Oakeshott Politics should not have any fixed goals or sense of specific direction
Pat Buchanan Christian democracy
Antonio Gramsci `Cultural Revolution' (Similar to Mao)
Anthony Crosland Nationalisation
Charles Fourier Socialism is about social responsibility (utopian socialism)
Eduard Bernstein Revisionist socialism
Frantz Fanon Imperial colonies who have defended themselves more likely to become socialist
Herbert Marcuse Worldwide capitalism exploit less economically developed countries
Leon Trotsky International revolution
Regis Debray See Fanon
Robert Owen New Harmony USA ­ community can operate collectively in a capitalist society
Georges Sorel Ability of the revolutionary to act in decisive way inhibited by traditional morality
Henry Thoreau Human fulfilment best achieved through creative work
Mikhail Bakunin "Social solidarity is the first human law; freedom is the second law." ­ Natural law
Murrary Rothbard Anarcho-capitalism/libertarianism + social laws needed for social stability
Peter Kropotkin Humankind, like in the animal kingdom, naturally form small-scale cooperative communities
William Godwin Rejected notion of original sin; people are made perfectly moral through morality and rationality


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