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Organisations that contributed to the
campaign for civil rights…read more

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Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute
Founded by Booker T. Washington in
This initiative built schools of higher
education for African Americans.
It helped to educate black Americans so
they have greater employability and to
`accommodate' in the white society.…read more

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Niagara Movement
W.E.B. Du Bois and Trotter founded this
organisation in 1905.
Partly formed as protest to Washington's
policy of adapting and being accepted.
A more radical approach was taken,
calling for equality everywhere.
`mighty current of change'
Never became a mass movement as Du
Bois had an academic approach which
didn't relate to working people.…read more

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National Association for the Advancement
of Colored People
Formed in 1909 by Du Bois.
Became most influential organisation in
the courts and changing society.
Worked to challenge discrimination and to
enforce the Constitution.
Fought against violations of amendments
passed between 1865 and 1870.…read more

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Universal Negro Improvement
Established by Marcus Garvey in 1914, it
promoted black pride and unity among the
Fought for independence of black race
and equal rights rather than be integrated
into the American society; melting pot
Encouraged A.As to set up their own
businesses.…read more

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