Key notes MR salters a2

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The materials revolution
Electronegativity
A) Explain the term Electronegativity, recall qualitatively the electronegativity trends in the
periodic table use relative electronegativity values to predict bond polarity in a covalent
bond decide whether a molecule is polar or nonpolar from its shape and the polarity of it's
bonds.
The
elect
ronegat
ivi
ty
of
an
atom
is
a measur
e of
t
he
abi
li
ty
of
that
at
om
in
a mol
ecul
e t
o
at
tr
act
el
ect
rons
in
a chemi
cal
bond
to
it
sel
f.
As
you
move
ri
ght
al
ong
the
rows
of
the
per
iodi
c t
abl
e,
the
mor
e el
ect
ronegat
ive
the
atoms
(
due
to
the
bigger
nucl
ei)
As
you
move
up
the
col
umns
of
the
per
iodi
c t
abl
e,
the
mor
e el
ect
ronegat
ive
the
atoms
Fl
uor
ine
is
the
most
el
ect
ronegat
ive
element
We
can
use
dif
fer
ences
in
elect
ronegat
ivi
ty
val
ues
to
predi
ct
how pol
ar
a par
ti
cul
ar
pol
ar
bond
w i
l
l
be.
C and
H
have
simi
l
a r
el
ect
ronegat
ivi
ty
and
so
w e
can
thi
nk
of
the
C --H bond
as
bei
ng
nonpol
ar.
The
great
er
the
dif
fer
ence
in
elect
ronegat
ivi
ty
bet
w een
the
atoms,
t
he
mor
e pol
ar
the
bond
and
the
great
er
the
ioni
c char
act
er.
Polymers
B) Explain and predict the effect of temperature, crystallinity and chain length on the
properties of polymers.
Temperature
The
str
onger
t
he
int
ermol
ecul
ar
for
ces,
t
he
higher
t
he
boi
li
ng
poi
nt
of
the
pol
ymer
Pol
ymer
s wi
th
elect
ronegat
ive
atoms
on
them
(F,
O ,
N )
can
for
m hydr
ogen
bonds
and
incr
eases
the
Tm
(mel
ti
ng
temper
atur
e)
Once
the
mel
ti
ng
temper
atur
e i
s r
eached,
t
he
pol
ymer
becomes
li
qui
d
Glass
tr
ansi
ti
on
temper
atur
e (
Tg)
is
the
temper
atur
e at
whi
ch
pol
ymer
s
become
bri
tt
le

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Bel
ow
the
Tg,
the
amor
phous
regi
ons
(r
andoml
y ar
ranged
chai
ns)
ar
e f
rozen
whi
ch
prevent
s chai
ns
fr
om
movi
ng
over
one
anot
her
,
reduci
ng
the
fl
exi
bil
i
ty
of
t
he
pol
ymer
,
maki
ng
it
br
it
tl
e.…read more

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G) Explain the difference between addition and condensation polymerisation
Dur
ing
condensation polymerisation t
w o
dif
fer
ent
monomer
s j
oin
toget
her
f
ormi
ng
a
condensat
ion
pol
ymer
wi
th
the
eli
minat
ion
of
a smal
l
mol
ecul
e.…read more

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ACID + Amides
Ami
de
+ wat
er
ami
ne
+ car
boxyl
i
c aci
d
ALKALI + Amides
Ami
de
+ wat
er
ami
ne
+ car
boxyl
i
c aci
d
Neutralisation of amines by acids
Ami
nes
dissol
ve
readi
ly
in
w at
er,
f
ormi
ng
w eakl
y al
kal
ine
sol
uti
ons:…read more

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Ami
nes,
l
i
ke
ammoni
a,
can
accept
a
hydr
ogen
ion
fr
om
w at
er
or
fr
om
an
aci
d:
Acylation of amines to form an amide
Ami
nes
react
wi
th
acyl
chl
ori
des
in
an
Acyl
ati
on
react
ion
and
the
product
i
s a
secondar
y ami
de…read more

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