Key events of the Thaw

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  • Created on: 13-05-13 14:52
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Ceasefire in Korean War (1953)
Change of leaders in bother the USA and the USSR meant that talks could finally reach a
conclusion. The new soviet leadership put pressure on North Korea's Kim Il Sung to reach an
East German Uprising (1953)
Ulbricht's policies were too harsh, the workers demonstrated and rioted. Many people left
to go to West Germany. East German government collapsed, Soviet troops sent in.
The Berlin Conference (January 1954)
Molotov suggested the creation of an all-Germany government from both the West and
East of Germany to begin to move towards reunification. The West opposed this as they
argued that free elections must be held before the creation of a government, not after.
The Geneva Conference (April, 1954)
Want to find a way to unify Vietnam and find peace in Indochina. Because of the long
standing battle between the Vietnamese and the French (who wanted control over
Vietnam), at last France was retiring. USA supported France because they thought that the
leader of Vietnam would lead to communist expansion.
France agreed to withdraw troops from North Vietnam. Vietnam would be temporarily
divided at the 17th parallel. Pending elections to choose president (within 2 years) and
reunite the country. During this time no foreign troops could enter Vietnam.
The USA was concerned about the agreement as it confirmed communism in North Vietnam.
They were convinced that elections would result in Ho's (communist) victory. The US helped
establish non-communist government in the South and gave them money and military
The Austrian State Treaty (1955)
Austria had been divided into zones of occupation in 1945. After 1955, the USSR agreed to
accept a united Austria as long as it remained neutral. This shows a change in superpower
relations as the influence of the USA and USSR was reduced, but so was a potential source
of conflict.
The Warsaw pact (1955)
Set up to co-ordinate military forces in Eastern Europe (like NATO for the Soviet bloc) as a
response to the integration of West Germany into NATO. Agreed on mutual defence of all
the members in case one of them is attacked.
Khrushchev agreed to remove cominform- Tito (Yugoslavia) happy. Mao unhappy as he was
still Stalinist- damaged their relations.
The Geneva Summit (July 1955)
The phrase "spirit of Geneva" referred to a series of peace summits between Khrushchev

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Eisenhower, marked an end to the hostility.
Khrushchev proposed a reunification of Germany as long as it stayed neutral. USA needed
West Germany as it was essential to their defence of Western Europe against the East.
Khrushchev also wanted NATO and the Warsaw pact dismantled and replaced with a new
collective security system. The West was only willing to make agreements on the limit of
Eisenhower wanted spy planes to be able to fly over each other's territory (`Open Skies').…read more

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Eisenhower scheduled a return visit to the Soviet Union in 1960.
However, there were signs of tension as Eisenhower was unimpressed by Khrushchev. Also,
Khrushchev pushed for an immediate summit on Berlin, but was frustrated when French
president Charles de Gaulle postponed until 1960.
The U-2 Spy Place Incident (May 1960)
The US sent spy planes over the USSR, USSR protested, flights stopped for a while but
resumed. Khrushchev thought they must have been sent by Dulles without Eisenhower's
knowledge.…read more


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