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1994 - Autocrat 150 million people

The Tsars Country 40% spoke russian as first

80% = peasants

5% of land farmed

1.5% aristocracy owned 25% land

coal + oil - quadruples

iron - trebled

Opponents Liberals + Cadets British monarchy

Social Revolutionaries murdered many Okhrana
killed 2 government officials…

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Aristocracy 13 million peasants
4 PM in 12 months

Tsar Abdication - 15th March Putilov Steel Workers 7th - 40,000

7th-10th - 250,000

industry came to standstill

DUMA set up (army refuse)

Provisional Government Failures June - new PM - Kerensky

offensive against germany &

Lenin returns


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Bolshevik takeover Night 6th November Red guard control buildings
(Peter and Paul fortress)

Morning 7th November seized railways and power

Evening 7th November Aurora - Kronstadt Naval Base -
fires blank shells @ winter

By Oct bolshevik - 800,000 2 Bolsheviks killed
members 18 arrested

half army


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Bolsheviks vs Whites Bolshevik strengths White weaknesses
ruthless Trotsky spread out
large different aims
organized peasants didnt like them
disciplined couldnt coordinate campaigns
good communication
330,000 men
22,000 officers
Cheka - arrest family
cant talk to whites - shot
cant help whites
war communism
couldnt sell surplus food



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