June 2012 Pre release article. 'Self made notes and predicted questions'

Hi All,

I have created a 14-paged PDF file (if printed all together, consisting of:
- The 9 paged article (original version)
- 4 pages of own set of notes (mainly spider diagram based)
- 1 page of possible self-thought questions, (29 questions)

Revise units: 1 (heart section: lipids, fats, LDLs, HDLs) and 2 (gene expression).
Quite an easy article, if you have revised everything

Everything here is self-made, and so if there are any mistakes that you find, please let me know!
Student room ID: jv.lalloo
Getrevising.com ID: Jathurshika.Lalloo x
FB ID: Jathursii Sjv Lalloo

Hope you find this useful.
Good Luck to all,

Jathurshika Vigneswaran
Year 13, A2 biologist. IUHS sixth form
London

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Preview of June 2012 Pre release article. 'Self made notes and predicted questions'

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Edexcel GCE
Biology
Advanced
Unit 5: Energy, Exercise and Coordination
June 2012 Paper Reference
Scientific Article for use with Question 7 6BI05/01
Do not return the Insert with the question paper.
Turn over
P39512A
©2012 Pearson Education Ltd.
1/1/1/1/1/
*P39512A*

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Scientific article for use with Question 7
A source of `thinspiration' ­ media, body image and dieting ­ but can your own body fat make
you thin?
1. Hoping to shift a few pounds? You could subject yourself to a gruelling exercise regime, try
the latest fad diet (anyone for cabbage soup?), take the newest blockbuster weight-loss pill
or . . . simply chill out in the fridge for a couple of hours a day.…read more

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It is known that when humans engage in serious self-reflection, activity increases in the medial
prefrontal cortex (mPFC). It is suspected that this increased activation can betray subconscious
thoughts.
10. In this study the healthy women looked at images of models in skimpy bikinis. Some images were
overweight, some very thin. On viewing each image the women were told to imagine that it was
them. When presented with overweight images, the mPFC showed in all of the women.…read more

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It has been recently reported that restricting calories to 1200 kcal per day increases the total output
of cortisol in females. Cortisol is important for regulating changes in behaviour and functions
such as glucose metabolism and the inflammatory process. Prolonged exposure to high levels,
however, can lead to higher blood pressure, suppressed thyroid function, impaired immunity,
and increased intra abdominal fat ­ all of which contribute to chronic disease states such as heart
disease, diabetes and cancer.
19.…read more

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Females today are exposed to evolutionarily novel stimuli that deceive cognitive and neurological
processes whose function developed to evaluate other females. As some females use a typical
media physique to establish norms as points of comparison it has for many become a case of
`keeping up with the Boneses'.
But, if fat and `yo-yo' diets are so bad, is it really possible for your existing stores to help you
burn calories and become a potential anti-obesity drug target?
Brown adipose tissue
28.…read more

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Three studies published recently used the technique of PET with 18F-FDG to determine the
physiological relevance of BAT in adult humans. All demonstrated that BAT is present in adults
(shown by 18F-FDG uptake), predominantly above the collar bones and around the neck. This
distribution is different to that seen in rodents, where BAT stores are mainly located between the
shoulder blades. Interestingly, on average, lean participants had more active BAT than overweight
and obese participants, suggesting BAT may help protect against obesity.…read more

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Although brown and white fat cells are very different, it was commonly assumed that they originate
from the same precursor. However, it was recently discovered that brown fat cells arise from the
same progenitor as muscle cells, whereas white fat cells emerge from an independent source. As
in white fat cell precursors, increasing the expression of PRDM16 in muscle cells causes them to
differentiate into brown fat cells.…read more

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Conclusions
49. There has been a decided shift in position by scientists and prominent medical bodies in
considering media images as being causative. For example, some think that: ' The media is a causal
risk factor for body dissatisfaction, negative effect and eating pathology'.
50. The Royal College of Psychiatrists has issued a `Statement on the influence of the media on eating
disorders' (2010). `The media has a role in both providing a social context for the development
and maintenance of eating disorders . .…read more

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At a practical level, a minimum standard of risk acceptability would have to be established based
upon visual physique parameters such as waist-hip ratio and dress size. Alternatively, a roughly
accurate proportion of female media images of an average UK dress size 16 could be ensured.
58. This may seem an extraordinary form of social medicine but the evidence suggests that `a lack of
reality based imagery' in media is causing health problems in a very large number of women and
young girls.…read more

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