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D'Annunzio's Fiume
Seized in September 1919

Successful?
Commander of local troops refused to stop soldiers
`Liberators'
Held for a year
Popular

D'Annunzio ­ `Regent'
Republic
Rallies & ceremonies
Newspaper

Nitti
Weak
no army no popularity

Gellotilli - 1920
Firm

Treaty of Rapallo ­ November 1920
1. Italian speakers choice to…

Page 2

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Fascism popularity ­ early rise
Significance of `mutilated victory'
Traditional party politics failed
Nationalist movement ­ successfully
e.g. Fiume
Military action and military organisation better than party politics
= Squadristi and PNF modelled on army
Fascism can achieve more
Fascist effectively resisted Trade Unions and Socialists
= Emergence 1919 ­…

Page 3

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New strategy
Renounced Pact of Pacification ­ November 1921
All armed organisations banned ­ Prime Minister Bonisimo
o Except fascists
Popularity
Squadristi separate
PNF growth
May 1921
80,476
371 fasci
December 1921
218,000
133 fasci
More popular + Mussolini more control over squadristi

New programme
Lower taxes for business and…

Page 4

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Appeal
Ideology varied
= Attracted different groups

Fascist tiny group at first
Demobilised soldiers and young middle class
Italy great power
Existing new movement for young

Rural
Sharecroppers
Small farmers
Farm managers
Scared of wealthy farmers
& Socialist collectivism + higher wage rates
= Funded + took part

Urban
Towns…

Page 5

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