Italy - Impact of WW1 - Rise of Fascism

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D'Annunzio's Fiume
Seized in September 1919
Commander of local troops refused to stop soldiers
Held for a year
D'Annunzio ­ `Regent'
Rallies & ceremonies
no army no popularity
Gellotilli - 1920
Treaty of Rapallo ­ November 1920
1. Italian speakers choice to live in Dalmatia
2. Flume independent city
= D'Annunzio refused
= Italy declared war
Lasted 4 days
Significance of Fiume
Showed dissatisfaction with St Germaine
Government weak + no loyal army
Direct action better then liberal compromise and negotiation
New politics ­ `roman salute', chants, castor oil
o Mussolini influenced

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Fascism popularity ­ early rise
Significance of `mutilated victory'
Traditional party politics failed
Nationalist movement ­ successfully
e.g.…read more

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New strategy
Renounced Pact of Pacification ­ November 1921
All armed organisations banned ­ Prime Minister Bonisimo
o Except fascists
Squadristi separate
PNF growth
May 1921
371 fasci
December 1921
133 fasci
More popular + Mussolini more control over squadristi
New programme
Lower taxes for business and farmers
= elite support
Compulsory military service
Power x terror
Locals forcibly ejecting authorities ­ 1922
o Dominating local government
o Levying unofficial taxes
o Syndicates control job markets
= left-wing protests
Mussolini ­ propaganda…read more

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Ideology varied
= Attracted different groups
Fascist tiny group at first
Demobilised soldiers and young middle class
Italy great power
Existing new movement for young
Small farmers
Farm managers
Scared of wealthy farmers
& Socialist collectivism + higher wage rates
= Funded + took part
Towns ­ lower middle class
Blamed gov
o High inflation
o Unemployment growth of socialism
Teachers, workers, shopkeepers, Small business owners
Most young ­ liked radical elements
o 10% students
o 25% too young to vote…read more

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