Italy 1896-1912 summary notes

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1896
North
Developed
Rich
Industry
South
Poor
Agricultural
Socio-economic
Wage: 8p per head
UK: 31p ­ FR: 26p
60% work on land
UK: 10%
Poor
Disease
o Malaria
o No water ­ cholera
Poor diet
Poor housing
New middle class & old upper
Old elite
o Families
More then Britain
o Do all wealthy
o Shared power with landowners
Lawyers + doctors = Landowners
Dominated local government
250m non manual ­ low pay
Power
King ­ direct power
army
role in foreign policy
selected pm
approve minister appointments
Limits
Parliament approved tax that funded army and government
Character
o Erratic, stupid
Army ­ central institution
215,000
3 years 18+
o most from paileotine
No shared political
principals
King more powerful

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Italy's economic boom 1896-1912
Giolliti
= $ growth
GDP 1896 -1912 2.8% annually
Better then GB + France ­ 2%
Why
Europe thriving
Demand high
Emigration
o 1900-10 ­ 6m ­ sent back money
Gov spending on military & hydroelectric dams
= Industrial production
Low tariffs = trade ­ raw & industrial
Industrial growth New industries 01-04
Cheap iron and steal imports =
o FIAT + Alfa
sulphuric acid, rubber and electrical cables =
o Perili and monterchtani
Profits 10.…read more

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Divide
Dialect
North e.g. Tuscany different from South e.g. Sicilty
1890s only 2% spoke Italian
Politics & power ­ Tuscany
South rejected
Unification or conquest
Actually a conquest by Pedoniant (kings province)
= resentment and bitterness
Tax
New state= higher taxes and efficient
Live stock of poor = high tax
Livestock of rich = low tax
Education
Divide in education
Electoral franchise based on literacy
Compoulstry schooling little effect
o 80% truancy
But..…read more

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Crispi
National identity
African empire
Abbasynnia
Disaster
Humiliated
Castrated
Internationally
Smaller population
Economically weak -> steal and iron to
Nationalists growing
`New Empire'
Anti-union polices
1909 ­ destabilising effect
Popular among influential ppl
1911 ­ Giolitti attempt for support
Abbasyinia
= Disaster
Too expensive and timely
Only gained coastal regions
Failed win Nationalist support
Angered socialist and Catholics…read more

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Giolitti
Skilled manipulator ­ transformismo & coalitions
Adowa 1896
Reforms
Government appeal
Infrastructure
Economy
1900-1907
Infrastructure 70%
(road building, aqueducts, railway improvements, irrigation
schemes)
End child labour
Women working hours ­ 11 hours
National insurance ­ sick and elderly
40 lire = baby
Neutrality if strikes
= Real wages agriculture and industry
= Living standards improved
Electoral franchise
3m 8m
1912 ­ literate men 21+ & all men 30+
Tight government controls
= Harder for coalitions & deals
Electoral franchise…read more

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Giotelli fall 1914
Radical opposition
Left ­
Revolution
people to power
Right ­
`corrupt elements' cleansed
Labour reforms + neutrality rule
= Alienated nationalists
Libyan war 1911-12
Unite nation
Stave off criticism
But..…read more

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