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Naples - 1820
Who revolted? Middle class liberals.
Did they want national unity? Only wanted a constitutional monarchy with
parliament for their particular state, didn't want a united Italy and didn't care
about the other states.
Causes? King Ferdinand gave the church more power. There was a ban on
publications, middle classes angered. Financial problems stopped schools and
roads being built. People watched Spanish 1812 constitution and wanted the
Aims? A constitutional monarchy, one chamber parliament which is elected, so
King Ferdinand couldn't get away with freedom of speech restrictions and
leaving them in poverty.
Results? General Pepe led the revolutionaries into Naples. King agreed a
constitution within a week. The parliament was made up of nobles, priests,
richest merchants. But...
How was Austria involved? Metternich was alarmed at the revolution in Naples
as thought peace could only be preserved by suppressing all revolution and
sticking to the Congress of Vienna. He invited the king of Naples, King
Ferdinand, to the Congress of Liebach in 1821 to discuss Naples' affairs. Kind
Ferdinand said he granted the constitution out of fear. Austrian army then went
in and reclaimed the state.
Sicily - 1821
Who revolted? Working class, the maestranze.
Did they want national unity? Wanted freedom for themselves from Naples,
not a united Italy.
Causes? Sicily had a forced union with Naples that they wanted separating from
because they weren't being looked after: all were impoverished.
Aims? Freedom from Naples and their own constitution.
Results? Took over Sicily's capital, Palmero. Naples didn't want them breaking
away, but then Naples' revolution was crushed, Sicily was got under control
How was Austria involved? Austria was concerned with Naples', and also
Sicily's, revolutions. To deal with Sicily, Metternich dealt with Naples.
Piedmont - 1821
Who revolted? Students, army, middle class liberals, Carbonari.
Did they want national unity? Wanted to get away from Austria, so without
outside interference could create their own free country.
Causes? Now restored absolutist monarch Victor Emmanuel had taken over,
they lost the Code Napoleon. No equality before law, but 1770 constitution
back in. Naples revolution stirred them.
Aims? A constitutional monarchy led by Charles Albert, second in line to be
king, in the House of Savoy. To lose Austrian dominance. Become "Kingdom of
Italy", have an Italian federation.
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Results? In March they took over a fortress town and established a
revolutionary government. Called themselves the Kingdom of Italy and attacked
Austria. Then Emmanuel's army mutinied in Turin. Victor Emmanuel fled. First in
line, Felix Albert, wasn't around. Charles Albert - who they wanted as king -
said they'd follow Spanish constitution. Felix Albert declared him a rebel and
didn't accept changes. Charles Albert fled. Austrians brought in. Rebels fought
for the new constitution but Austria defeated them.…read more