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ISSUE AO1 AO2
Reliability Reliability= consistency of diagnosis between different psychiatrists (inter-rater reliability)
Beck (1962) reported 54% concordance rate between practitioners in 153 patients using Rosenham- warned psychiatric hospitals that a
the DSM. number of pseudo patients would try to be admitted.
Test-retest= diagnosing a patient more than once to see if they receive the same diagnosis. Out of 193 patients, 41 were identified as fakes,
Baca-Garcia (2007) found 69.9% concordance rate between the proportion of people who whereas they were all in fact genuine. = unreliable
keep the diagnosis over time (PPV) Copeland(1971)- lack of consistency between
diagnosis of Americans and British psychiatrists; 69%
of Americans diagnosed the patients with Sz but only
2% of British psychiatrists did.
Sorderberg (2005) found a concordance rate of
81% of the most up-to-date DSM, showing it to have
become more reliable.
Lack of construct Construct validity= extent to which Sz actually exists as a single disorder People are misdiagnosed=inappropriate
validity Allardyce (2001) suggests a number of problems: treatment which is particularly problematic
Hallucinations and delusions can happen in everyday life of those who don't have Sz considering the negative side effects, and also the
Sz has a range of symptoms that occur in other disorders such as bi-polar so could be co social stigma attached to Sz
There is no clear cut off point between those suffering from Sz and those who are not It may be than Sz is not one single disorder
Schneider (1959) proposed a different approach
than the ICD and the DSM. He argued that it was the
nature of the symptoms that determined whether a
person has Sz. He studied the types of hallucinations
that Sz suffers had and formed a number of `first rank
symptoms' that he claimed could distinguish Sz from
other types of psychosis. However this system has
been criticised for being too stringent.
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Poor predictive Predictive Validity= extent to which the outcome of a Sz patient can be predicted women have been found to have a better
validity Around 20% recover to their previous level of functioning- 10% with lasting improvement outcome than men
Around 30% show improvement with relapse According to Amador (2010) whenever a patient has
The variation of outcomes makes it difficult to predict the outcome of a patient's specific another episode the long-term prognosis worsens.…read more