Islam OCR Revision notes

Revision notes on topics:

  • Pre-Islamic Arabia
  • Life of Muhammad
  • Tahwid
  • Five Pillars
  • Mosque
  • Sura 1
  • Sura 96
  • Qur'an
  • Kalam Argument

Including Sura and scholar quotes

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Pre-Islamic Arabia
Religious Background
Bedouin Polytheism ­ Key religion at the time, believed in 365 gods, Allah was the chief god.
Animism - Believed in Jinn, spirits of the desert.
Christianity ­ Different dominations of Christianity included Orthodox (Jesus was man + God),
Nestorian (Jesus was man) and Monophysites (Jesus was God). Dominant religion in South,
North and East Arabia.
Judaism ­ Existed since Jews fled Israel, few Jews in Mecca. They had tradition linked to
Quresh ­ Tribal group, very highly ranked, large population.
Paganism ­ Believed Allah was supreme, cast spells and made chants. Made sacrifices part of
religious ritual.
Zoroastrianism ­ Roots in ancient Iran, belief in sun god constantly battling dark god. Believed
in day of judgement.
"In a social and religious situation ready for a new religion and change." Watton
"Arabia was idolatrous." Dr Muhammad Hamidullah
Political Background
Towards West ­ Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)
Towards East ­ Sassanian Empire
Both powers were at war from 614 ­ 628 AD.
"Muhammad was a dazzling success, both politically and spiritually." Karen Armstrong
Social Background
Muhammad was born at the time of Jahiliya (days of ignorance).
Arabia was a desert with a scattering of oases.
Main trade was between North and South.
Mecca was most important city on trade route.
Muhammad's great grandfather, Hashim, increased Meccan role in trade cycle.
In early 6th century King converted to Judaism, his Christian subjects turned to Abyssinia for
Abyssinians invaded south, weakened both powers.
In 580 AD the Sassanian Empire took over South Arabia.
"Life was cheap." Karen Armstrong
"Dog eat dog culture." Turner

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570 ­ Born in Mecca, father died before birth.
575 ­ Became an orphan after mother died.
578 ­ Taken care of by his uncle, Abu Talib, leader of a tribe. Travelled with his uncle during
his teens.
582 ­ First visit to Syria.
595 ­ Second visit as trade agent for Khadija, then marries her.
605 ­ Renovation of Ka'ba.
610 ­ First revelation through Jibrael (Gabriel). Khadija +
Abu Bakr (closest friend) convert to Islam.
613 ­ Muhammad starts preaching in Mecca.…read more

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Medina (city of the Prophet). As Watton says "This marked the
beginning of Islam."
The Night Journey ­ 621
Around a year before the Hijra, Muhammad experienced a physical and spiritual journey from
the Ka'ba in Mecca to the Masjid-al-Aqsa in Jerusalem. Here, Muhammad ascended into
Heaven, where he met all the previous Prophets and was shown a copy of the Qur'an.…read more

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Tawhid is the oneness of God. It contains all other teachings of God within it. In Islam it is emphasised
prophets and angels should not be considered Godly. The word `Allah' simply means God in Arabic,
however it cannot be pluralised.
"Allah ­ there is no God but He." Sura 20
"Allah is He on whom all depend." Sura 112
Shirk is associating other beings with God.
It is the worst sin a Muslim can commit.…read more

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God will be merciful under certain conditions "That mercy I shall ordain for those who do
right, and practice charity." Sura 7
Ninety-Nine Names of God
"To Him belong the most beautiful names" Sura 59
Al-Bari (the maker), Al-Hadi (the guide), Al-Malik (the king).
The 99 names of God sum up His nature and describe His qualities.
Muslims use 33 prayer beads to recite God's names.
"Allah has the most beautiful names". Sura 7
Implications of Tawhid
Muslims seek to be vice-regents of God's creation.…read more

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I am God, there is no other god but Me, you shall worship Me and observe the Salat to
commemorate Me." Sura 20
"Set up regular prayers." Sura 4
"Bow down your heads." Sura 2
"Salah is the pillar of the Islamic religion." Hadith
"5 Prayers remove Sins as water removes dirt." Hadith
Sawm ­ Fasting during Ramadan
From the age of 12, all Muslims are obliged to fast during the month of Ramadan, excluding
those who are pregnant, elderly or ill.…read more

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Tawaf ­ Pilgrims circle the Ka'ba another seven times in an anti-clockwise direction. This is the
final step of the Pilgrimage.
One who has completed the Hajj is known as a Hajji (man) or Hajja (woman).
The Hajj puts Muslims in the place of the great Prophets of God.
"Hajj is the gate of paradise." Hadith
"For Hajj are the months well known." Sura 2
"Pilgrimage unites Muslims of the world.…read more

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He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
He is the Master of the Day of Judgement.
It is You we worship, it is You we ask for help.
Guide us in the straight path.
The path of those You have blessed,
as opposed to those who incur wrath and have gone astray.…read more

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Madani Sura's (Medina) tend to be longer, and discuss how Muslims should live their lives.
Qur'an comes from Arabic Word "Quara" which means to read.
"The best of you is he who learns the Qur'an and teaches it." Hadith.
"The Qur'an embodies the word of Allah." Mawdudi.
"We have made the Qur'an easy to remember." Sura 54.
The Kalam Argument
Developed by Al-Kindi and Al-Ghazali
First Part: Present wouldn't exist if the Universe was infinite as successive addition cannot be
applied to infinite.…read more



very concise notes. Would be very useful for students to build on.


salam bro


wat u sayin




salaam bro you ok


there are a few mistakes within this do care when going through


and good luck on the exam tomorrow you plebs

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