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DESCARTES AND CERTAIN TRUTHS
· Descartes understands knowledge in terms of what is
completely certain.
· If there is knowledge that is not completely certain then it
is not knowledge.
· To establish whether something is certain he tests it by
doubting the statement. If it can be doubted then it is not
certain.
· If something is certain it is impossible that they should be
false.
· In the intro we said that knowledge is TJB.
· Descartes then argues that it must also be certain.
· But we can object and say that this is not necessary we can
have beliefs that are justified but not certain.…read more

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WHAT IS CERTAINTY?
Certainty is that a
proposition cannot be
doubted because it
must be true.…read more

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NECESSARY/CONTINGENT
· Contingent proposition- A proposition is
contingent if it could be true or false.
· Many empirical facts are contingent. Such as `
president Obama was elected in 2012'. This could
have been false.
· Necessary proposition- A proposition is necessary
is it cannot be false, it is only true.
· Most commonly mathematical knowledge. 2+2= 4
· Many rationalists also argue that the type of
knowledge we gain through a priori reasoning is
also necessary.…read more

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EXPLAIN AND ILLUSTRATE THE DISTINCTION
BETWEEN NECESSARY AND CONTINGENT
TRUTH.…read more

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CERTAINTY, INTROSPECTION AND
TAUTOLOGY
· Tautology is just another term for analytical
proposition.
· Because everyone agrees that analytical truths
are necessary, then there is also no argument
that they are certain. So what is tautological
(analytical) is certain.
· BUT CAN THEIR BE ANY OTHER BELIEFS APART
FROM ANALYTICAL TRUTHS THAT CAN BE
CERTAIN?…read more

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