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Irish rebellions
REBELLIONS…read more

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Kildare 1534
· Cause: Cromwell began to favour Kildare's rivals the Butler
clan and Kildare resented his declining influences in both
London and Dublin. Henry VIII ordered the Earl to visit
him, he declined, and in the meantime began to transfer
weapons to Dublin castle. When he finally went to London
he was lodged in the Tower and never left, dying. `Silken
Thomas', Kildare's son was furious and he and his five
uncles raised troops to invade the Pale. `Silken Thomas'
objective was to expel the English administration and
become sole ruler of Ireland.
· Size of rebel force: 1,000 men.
· Leader: 10th Earl of Kildare (Silken Thomas)
· Executions: Kildare and his five uncles, 75 more executed.…read more

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Shane O'Neill's rebellion 1558-
· Cause: Shane O'Neill wanted to rule Ulster and was
willing to murder his own brother to achieve it, this stirred
up resentment. He begged forgiveness from Queen
Elizabeth who agreed to recognise him as captain of
Tyrone and `The O'Neill'. But he was soon intriguing with
Charles IX of France and Mary Queen of Scots. He
continued to disregard the law, raid lands of rival
clansmen, kidnapped hostages and dabbled in high
treason. In 1566 Elizabeth finally abandoned her attempts
to reconcile him and turned to a military solution.
· Leader: Shane O'Neill
· Size of rebel force: 6,000
· Executions: None…read more

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Fitzgerald (1 ) 1569-73
· Cause: Fitzgerald resented attempts by
Elizabeth to colonise Ireland the imposition of
martial law. He was especially aggrieved that
his cousin, the Earl of Desmond had been put
in the Tower following a feud with the Butler
clan. Also religious motives, claiming that
Elizabeth wanted to introduce "another newly
invented kind of religion".
· Leader: James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald.
· Size of rebel force: 600
· Executions: widespread…read more

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Fitzgerald (2 ) 1579-83
· Cause: Fitzgerald rose up again, but for more
religious causes this time. Having returned from
Rome he had learnt about the Bull of
Excommunication against Elizabeth. Saw this as
an opportunity to rally support against Elizabeth.
(Although realistically there had been no attempts
by the English to make Ireland Protestant).
· Leader: James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald
· Size of rebel force: 800 + 600 Spanish and
Italian troops.
· Executions: Widespread, as many as 800 were
executed after both rebellions.…read more

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Tyrone rebellion 1594-1603
· Cause: Ill feelings towards plantations and
government policies in Ireland such as
compositions were not liked. When Hugh O'Neill
returned to Ireland after being brought up in
England he was eager to be recognised as "The O'
Neill", ruler of Ulster. He believed he had not been
rewarded enough for defending Elizabeth's policy
on garrisons, he had had enough of English
intervention and thus began the Nine Year War.
· Leader: Hugh O'Neill
· Size of rebel force: 9,000
· Executions: none…read more


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