Ionic, covalent and metallic bonding

a table showing the properties of different atom bonds

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How it is Melting/
Type Of Between held boiling Conduct Other Examples
Bonding together point electricity properties
Metal and Non-metal Transfer electrons High ­ the strong Only when aqueous Many are soluble Sodium Chloride
from ions. Strong electrostatic (aq) or liquid (molten) Calcium Carbonate
electrostatic attraction means it because ions are
Ionic attraction. Regular takes lots of energy then free to move.
lattice to break the bonds
Non-metals Caring sharing Very High ­ very No. No free ions to Very hard, hard Diamond
covalent ­ share strong covalent carry the charge. density, difficult to Sand
electrons. 4 covalent bonds, holding the scratch or cut. Quartz
Giant bonds so can create massive structure
giant structures. together. Lots of
covalent Macro molecules. energy needed to
break bonds.
Non-metals Caring, sharing Low ­ weak bonds No. No free ions to Low density, weak Oxygen
covalent ­ share between molecules carry the charge. forces means that Chlorine
electrons. Simple ­ so less energy is they are gases or Nitrogen
Covalent strong bonds in needed to break liquids at room Carbon Dioxide
molecules but weak them apart temperature. Water
bonds between Hydrogen

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Metals Sea of delocalised High ­ the strong Ions are a good High density, Aluminium
electrons from outer electrostatic conductor of heat malleable (bendy), Copper
shell. Negative attraction means that and electricity. ductile (can be used Iron
Metallic electrons and it takes a lot of Conducts at both to make wires) Gold
positive ions held energy to break solid and liquid as the because of ions can Steel
together by a strong bonds. electrons are free to slide, ions are closely Bronze
electrostatic move.…read more


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