Ion Tests

Summary sheet of all the ion tests, flame tests and gas tests you need to know for iGCSE Chemistry. Enjoy (as much as possible seeing as its revision...)

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iGCSE Chemistry - Ion Tests
1) Anions
Anion Test used Result
Carbonate CO32- Add dilute acid Bubbles - CO2 being produced
Chloride Cl- Acidify and add aqueous silver White precipitate formed
nitrate
Iodide I- Acidify and add aqueous silver Yellow precipitate formed
nitrate
Nitrate NO3- Add aqueous NaOH and Ammonia (NH3) produced - Aluminium
aluminium foil. Warm gently reduces the nitrate ion to NH4+ which
then reacts with NaOH
Sulphate SO42- Acidify and add aqueous White precipitate formed
barium nitrate
Bromide Br- Acidify and add aqueous silver Cream precipitate formed
nitrate
Example equations:
NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) --> AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> CaCl2(aq) + H20(l) + CO2(g)
2) Cations
Cation Result with NaOH(aq) Result with NH4(aq)
Aluminium Al3+ White precipitate formed which is White precipitate formed, but this
soluble in excess time, insoluble in excess
Ammonium NH4+ Ammonia produced on warming N/A
Calciun Ca2+ White precipitate formed which is None, or very slight white precipitate
insoluble in excess formed
Copper Cu2+ Light blue precipitate formed, Light blue precipitate formed - goes
which is insoluble in excess to dark blue solution in excess
Iron(II) Fe2+ Green precipitate formed which is Green precipitate formed which is
insoluble in excess insoluble in excess
Iron(III) Fe3+ Red-brown precipitate formed Red-brown precipitate formed which
which is insoluble in excess is insoluble in excess
Zinc Zn2+ White precipitate formed which is White precipitate formed which is
soluble in excess soluble in excess

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Example equations:
CuSO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) --> Cu(OH)2(s) + Na2SO4(aq)
Al2(SO4)3 + 6NaOH(aq) --> 2Al(OH)3 + 6Na2SO4
3) Gases
Gas Test used Result
Ammonia NH3 Litmus Paper Turns damp red litmus paper blue
Carbon Dioxide CO2 Limewater Turns limewater milky
Chlorine Cl2 Litmus Paper Bleaches paper white
Hydrogen H2 Lit Splint Burns with a "pop"
Oxygen O2 Glowing Splint Relights a glowing splint
4) Cations - Flame tests
Cation Li+ Na+ K+ Ca2+ Ba2+ Sr2+
Colour Bright Lasting Lilac Brick Red Apple Brick Red
Yellow yellow/…read more

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