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Unlike voluntary manslaughter involuntary manslaughter may be charged
An acquittal for murder may be substituted for an IM conviction so it is not true to say that
IM is always charged
(30)R v Woollin (1999) ­ Direction of substantial risk rather than virtual certainty
P is able…

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D's breach was criminal/grossly negligent
D Owed a Duty of Care:
This is the same as the general principles of civil negligence with the court considering the
relationship between D and V
Where the relationship is already recognised as giving rise to a duty of care (an
established relationship) the…

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This is also known as constructive manslaughter as the liability for manslaughter is
constructed from liability for a lesser offence
The AR is the AR of the lesser offence plus causing death
The MR is committing the AR deliberately and the MR of lesser offence

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D's Unlawful Act Must Cause Death:
See Actus Reus: Causation (causation in fact, causation in law, breaking the chain etc.)



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