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Internal Transport in the Body

-Internal transport systems at work are examples of mass flow
-Mass flow= fluid moves in a response to a pressure gradient, flowing from a region of high pressure
to regions of low pressure

Transport in mammals

-Mammals have a closed circulation- blood is pumped by…

Page 2

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circulation- organs are supplied with blood by an artery branching from the main artery known as the
aorta-> artery-> arteriole-> capillary-> venule-> vein-> vena cava

The blood clotting mechanism

-In the event of a break in our closed blood system, blood clots prevent the loss of blood
-A clot both…

Page 3

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-Walls of the heart are supplied with oxygenated blood + nutrients via coronary arteries- vital for
maintenance of the pumping action
-Valves of the heart prevent backflow- maintain direction of flow

atrio-ventricular valves -large valves
-prevent backflow from ventricles to atria
-edges are supported by tendons anchored to
the muscle…

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Blood pressure and its measurement

-Blood pressure= pressure of blood flowing through arteries
-Initially, flow is a surge or pulse, but pressure falls as blood flows on through the smaller arteries,
arterioles and capillaries to the veins- pulsation has entirely disappeared by the time the capillaries
have been reached

Page 5

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-Blood pressure= quoted as two values (typically, one over the other)- the high pressure is produced
by ventricular systole (systolic pressure), and is followed by low pressure at the end of the
ventricular diastole (diastolic pressure)- normally, systolic and diastolic pressures are about 15.8 and
10.5 kPa respectively
-Sphygmomanometer is…


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