First 263 words of the document:
Internal factors and ethnic differences in
To label someone is to attach a meaning or definition to them.
Gillborn and Youdell mean by racialised expectations that people have different
expectations on different ethnic backgrounds and in a racial way. Teachers expected
black pupils to present more discipline problems and misinterpreted their behaviour as
threatening or as a challenge to authority.
Asian pupils have problems with:
Teachers assuming they have poor grasp of English and therefore speak to them in a
They also feel isolated when teachers expressed disapproval of their customs and
mispronounced their names.
Teachers do not see them as a threat but as a problem that they can ignore.
The ethnocentric curriculum
Ethnocentric describes an attitude or policy that gives priority to the culture and
viewpoint of one particular ethnic group while disregarding others.
Troyna and Williams describe the curriculum in Britain as ethnocentric as it prioties
white culture and English language.
David describes national curriculum teaches culture of `host community' and ignores
Coard ethnocentric curriculum produces underachievement.
Not clear what impact ethnocentric curriculum has.
Individual racism: that results from the prejudiced views of individuals.
Institutional racism: discrimination that is built into the way institutions such as schools
and colleges operate.
Troyna and Williams see ethnocentric curriculum is a prime example of institutional
racism. They see the meagre provision for teaching Asian languages as institutional
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Hatcher found they gave low priority to race issues and failed to deal with pupils racist
This shows that institutional racism may create an environment in which ethnic minority
pupils are routinely disadvantaged by a system that disregards their needs.
Selection and segregation
Gillborn argues Marketisation given schools greater scope to select pupils putting some
ethnic minority pupils at a disadvantage. Selections giving more scope for negative
stereotypes to influence decisions about school admissions.
Moore and Davenports support Gillborn.…read more
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Connolly shows how pupils and teachers construct masculinity differently depending on
a Childs ethnicity. Though he found that teachers saw black boys as under achievers
and controlled them by punishing them more. The boys in return respond by seeking
status in non academic ways.
Both teachers and pupils saw Asian boys as more `feminine' vulnerable and in need of
protection from bullying.
These studies show that we cannot consider ethnicity in isolation from gender and class
when explaining differences in achievement.…read more