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Result of institutional care
Institution; looks after children/mentally ill
Place where people live for a period of time (without going home every day DayCare)
HODGES AND TIZARD
Aims; long term effects of privation due to institutionalisation including the
emotional/social effects in adolescence
65 children taken into care before the age of four months; OPPORTUNITY SAMPLE
Matched pairs design; control group- raised at home
By age of four; 24 adopted, 15 restored, rest stayed
Assessed at ages 4,8 and 16 by interviews and self-report questionnaires
WITHIN THE HOME; at age eight both adopted and restored children formed attachment
with parents/carers. At age 16; adopted well attached, restored less well attached.
Probably due to adoptive parents putting in considerable amounts of effort.
OUTSIDE THE HOME; at ages 8 and 16;
o Both adopted and restored had difficulty with peers
o Less likely to belong to a crowd
o Teachers rated them as likely to be attention seeking
o Restored more argumentative.
Effects of privation/institutionalisation can be reversed; both restored and adopted
could form attachments
However there are long term effects; both have difficulty forming peer relationships.
Findings at age sixteen shows that early privation has negative effects on ability to form
relationships when the relationship involved someone who wasn't going to work so hard
at it (peers)
SAMPLE; reduced because participants dropped out (ATTRITION).
o Problem with longitudinal studies.
o Similar type of people drop out; those less well adjustment
o Biased sample
o Difficulty to generalise
Methodology; Natural experiment
o IV; where children were brought up
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Researchers did not control who was adopted etc.
o So adopted/restored group may have difference
o Adopted children; more friendly, less troubled, parents choose children
easier to get on with
o CHILDS TEMPREMENT MAY HAVE BEEN A CONFOUNDING VARIABLE
o Findings at age sixteen explained in other ways
o Adopted children; low self- esteem stemming from being adopted
o Ex-institutional children; behind on emotional development so have poor
peer relationships.…read more
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CASE STUDY 2; Genie (Curtiss, 1977)
Isolation, severe neglect and physical restraint
Strapped to child's potty in a bare room
Sometimes had to resort to eating own faeces
Punished if she made any sound
Found at 13 but had appearance of 6/7 year old.…read more