First 283 words of the document:
Inheritance transmitting genetic characteristics from parent to offspring via
Chromosome threadlike bodies consisting of chromatin, which carry
the genes in a linear order, humans have 23 pairs.
Gene a linear sequence of nucleotides along a segment of DNA that provides
the coded instructions for protein synthesis.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid: an extremely long macromolecule that is
the main component of chromosomes and is the material that transfers
genetic characteristics in all life forms.
Alleles any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a given locus
Dominant the controlling allele _ one of a pair of alternative alleles that
masks the effect of the other when both are present in the same cell or
Recessive the receding allele _ one of a pair of alternative alleles whose
effect is masked by the activity of the second when both are present in the
same cell or organism.
Genotype the type of alleles an organism carries.
Phenotype how an organism looks like on the outside.
Homozygote an organism with the same alleles on a particular gene locus.
Heterozygote - an organism with different alleles on a particular gene locus.
Gametes sex cells
Meiosis a type of cell division that occurs in the formation of gametes in the
reproductive organs in which produces four daughter cells and each one carries
Mitosis the division of cells that is used for the production of somatic cells, it
produces two daughter cells which are identical to each other and each carry a
full set of 46 chromosomes.