inheritance definitions

key words that are used with regards to inheritance with their definition :D

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  • Created by: Aimee
  • Created on: 10-05-11 17:18
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Inheritance definitions
Inheritance ­ transmitting genetic characteristics from parent to offspring via
genes.
Chromosome ­ threadlike bodies consisting of chromatin, which carry
the genes in a linear order, humans have 23 pairs.
Gene ­ a linear sequence of nucleotides along a segment of DNA that provides
the coded instructions for protein synthesis.
DNA ­ deoxyribonucleic acid: an extremely long macromolecule that is
the main component of chromosomes and is the material that transfers
genetic characteristics in all life forms.
Alleles ­ any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a given locus
Dominant ­ the controlling allele _ one of a pair of alternative alleles that
masks the effect of the other when both are present in the same cell or
organism.
Recessive ­ the receding allele _ one of a pair of alternative alleles whose
effect is masked by the activity of the second when both are present in the
same cell or organism.
Genotype ­ the type of alleles an organism carries.
Phenotype ­ how an organism looks like on the outside.
Homozygote ­ an organism with the same alleles on a particular gene locus.
Heterozygote - an organism with different alleles on a particular gene locus.
Gametes ­ sex cells
Meiosis ­ a type of cell division that occurs in the formation of gametes in the
reproductive organs in which produces four daughter cells and each one carries
23 chromosomes.
Mitosis ­ the division of cells that is used for the production of somatic cells, it
produces two daughter cells which are identical to each other and each carry a
full set of 46 chromosomes.

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