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Infection, immunity and forensics
Fingerprints are unique to an individual and don't change over a lifetime
Four main types of fingerprint ­ arch, tented arch, whorl and loop
Dental records are the best way of identification fillings and teeth decay very slowly and are
resistant to burning.
DNA profiling,…

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Rigor mortis
Muscle tense and then relax
They tense do to the lack of ATP being produced so the myosin cannot let go of the
Muscles are starved of oxygen and oxygen dependant reactions stop so respiration is anaerobic
(lactic acid is made), pH falls so enzymes no longer…

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Reproduce asexually by binary fission replication of DNA they divide identically
TB carried in droplets of mucus and saliva (droplet infection), can remain airbourne for hours in a
poorly ventilated room
Poor diet, poor health and overcrowded living conditions increase the risk of getting TB
Can survive on bedclothes and…

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Each b cell produces only one type of antibody, so each antigen will bind to activate different B
Produced in bone marrow, each divides rapidly to produce a clone of cells, B cells have
receptors on their surface these include transmembrane versions of the antibody molecules
they produce


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Humans inherit some antigens that the body recognises but also rejects
Xenoplantation ­ no common antigens so the body rejects by the primary response

Response to TB
Tb a contagious diseases caused by bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Almost a third of the world's population is infected with TB
Improvements in living…

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5) Undergoes protein synthesis and buds out by exocytosis, taking the coat of the T helper cells
and killing them as they leave
Active phase when the person is first infected with HIV, HIV antibodies appear, fever, sweats,
headache and sores, rapid replication of virus and loss of T helper…

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o Reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent RNA making DNA for integration into the hosts
o Protease inhibitors that catalyse the cutting of large into small for new virus
TB can be treated with antibiotics, usually a combination of 4 given over a long period of time.
This ensures the…


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