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Ivan Vyshnegradsky's policies
oFinance minister: 1887- 1892
oNationalized least profitable railways.
oSupported domestic industry
oIncreased taxes
oEncouraged grain exports and discouraged imports (caused
terrible famine in 1891)
oHowever he did achieve a balanced budget, he reserved
gold and did strengthen the value of the rouble.…read more

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Sergei Witte
o Finance minister between the year's 1892-
o Arranged large loans from other nations ­ Put
them in a huge debt crisis.
o Used heavy taxes and high interest rates in
o However did put Russian currency on the
gold standard, which encouraged Russian
o Only encouraged heavy industry and gave no
attention to light industry and agriculture.
o Although their was a huge increase in
industry is was still nothing compared to the
population which by 1913 was over 150
million and nothing compared to western
countries.…read more

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o Witte had hoped transport would boost exports and foreign trade.
o So the state began to buy up railway companies to try and boost the
growth in the transportation links by 1890 60% of railway links were
owned by the state.
o BY 1905 Russia had 59,616 km of Railway, which sounds impressive but
the area if Russia is over 6 million square miles. So not a huge
o However it did help open up Russia so it could look more into exploiting
Russia's raw materials. Links included the Donbas coalfield, Krivori-Rog
(Iron mines) also linked to the Caspian and black seas for oil.
1880 (million t) 1916 (million t)
Coal 3.2 33.8
Iron 0.42 3.72
Oil 0.5 9.7
Grain 34 64…read more

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The Trans-Siberian Railway
o Main Line Started in 1891 and completed in 1902
so was a fairly fast process.
o Linked Central European Russia to Pacific and
parts of China.
o Covered 7,000 km out of the 8,000 km of Width in
o Opened up more opportunity to peasants and also
meant supplies could be more easily shipped
across for Towns and cities and also for the
military.…read more

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o During the 1800's light industry had led the way for progress in the
industrial sector.
o This had all changed when Witte had come to power; textile trades began
to decrease
o Witte believed that by concentrating production on key areas and by
developing large factory units of over 1,000 workers, big increases in
heavy goods productions could be achieved.
o Main factories in the West near St.Petersberg and Moscow.
Years Number of Factories Number of Factory workers
1887 30,888 1.3 million
1908 39,856 2.6 million…read more

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