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Hippocrates (460- 377BC)
Hippocrates made such an impression on medical history that his name is
still very much associated with medicine today.
Hippocrates is known for 4 major reasons:
Newly qualified doctors take what is Ancient Greek medical knowledge is
called the `Hippocratic Oath'. demonstrated in what is known as the
This is a promise that they have not Hippocratic Collection. This is a
become a doctor to gain money and collection of sixty medical books of
importance but that they have become which Hippocrates wrote just some.
doctors to help people in need.
Hippocrates created the theory of the
four humours. These are: blood, phlegm,
Hippocrates was the first doctor to look at black bile, yellow bile. This was the basis
the issue of poor health and disease by for medical knowledge for thousands of
using a process of observation. years.…read more

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Galen (129 ­ 199AD)
Galen was a Greek/Roman doctor known for his theory of opposites and
his strong support from the Christian Church.
Galen believed that to cure an illness Galen was supported by the Church. This was
you should keep a constant balance of because Galen believed that there was a being
hot and cold. For example, if you had that watched over them, this to Christians was
a fever then you should apply God.
cucumbers to the place you felt the The support from the Church carried Galen's
hottest. . This was the theory of ideas on for thousands of years as the Church
opposites. was extremely powerful. Even though many of
It was similar to Hippocrates' theory Galen's ideas were wrong (due to the fact that
of the four humours as the idea was he dissected on pigs instead of humans) the
that everything should be balanced. church forbade anyone to challenge any of
Therefore, it is not a surprise that Galen's theories and therefore hindered the
Galen was a big fan of Hippocrates' progress of medical knowledge.
work.…read more

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Ambroise Paré (1510 ­1590)
At the beginning of the 16th century many surgical and medical treatments had
not changed for hundreds of years. The main method of stopping a wound
bleeding, for example, was to cauterise or seal it with a hot iron. Muslim doctors
had developed this technique 500 years earlier. The man who stumbled upon a
better by chance method was Ambroise Paré.
While on the battlefield, In an attempt to stop soldiers bleeding to death, wounds were
usually scorched with burning oil or a hot iron to seal them.
Paré had run out of oil in the battlefield so had to try an alternative method.
He made a dressing of egg whites, oil of roses and turpentine, which he applied to a wound.
The dressing successfully sealed the wound and provided relief from pain.
Pare is also widely known for
developed the use of a ligature to stop
bleeding after an amputation. He is
also known for designing false limbs.…read more

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Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 ­ 15 October 1564)
Andreas Vesalius was a physician and anatomist. He is known for writing one of the most
influential books on human Anatomy, "De humani corporis fabrica."
Vesalius is known widely for being one of the first to question the famous anatomist
An example of this is that Galen's De humani corporis fabrica
work showed that the human had The book was based largely on human dissection,
two jaw bones. Vesalius proved and transformed anatomy into a subject that
that there was in fact only one jaw relied on observations taken directly from human
bone and that the reason for Galen' dissections.
s mistake was due to the fact that
he had worked on monkeys, not
humans. Andreas Vesalius was the
first to actually stand out against
Galen's work, although the
renaissance opened new ideas,
questioning the Ancients was going
too far.…read more

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William Harvey (1 April 1578 ­ 3 June 1657)
William Harvey was an English physician who is widely known for being the
first person to describe in detail the systemic circulation and properties of
blood being pumped to the body by the heart.
Harvey attended the University of Padua just 50 years after Vesalius and, although Vesalius had
make his imprint on Galen's works, doctors still relied on Galen for a lot of their knowledge.
Harvey wanted that to stop. Harvey used carful calculations and experiments to realise that
Galen's theory on how blood circulated around the body was wrong. Galen believed that blood
was produced by the liver and then 'used up' by the body, Harvey proved that the amount of
plod pumped by the heart was so much that it couldn't be used up the way that Galen had
described. Harvey proved that the heart pumped blood around the body again and again, rather
than being "used up" like Galen had described.
Harvey was also the first to suggest that humans and other mammals reproduced via the
fertilisation of an egg by sperm.…read more


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