Individual differences approach and its studies

Three studies under the individual differences approach in detail. 

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Individual differences studies
Thigpen and Cleckly
Aim to provide an account of the psychotherapeutic treatment of a 25 year old woman who was
referred to Thigpen and Cleckly because of severe and blinding headaches.
Participant 25 year old female who was suffering from severe headaches and stated to have multiple
personality disorder.
Method/procedure CASE STUDY
Thigpen and Cleckly used interviews with Eve White and her family. In total, 100hours worth of
interviews took place which made this study a case study. There Thigpen and Cleckly gathered that Eve
White had two personalities. Eve Black was aware of Eve White's personality; however, Eve White was
not aware of Eve Black's personality. Eve Black was described to be the mischievous one, whereas, Eve
White was known as a sensitive and caring character.
EEG tests were also used to measure the brain level of activity taking place while each personality was
Psychometric tests on IQ and memory were also used to measure the intelligence of the personalities.
Projective tests such as ink blot tests also took place to measure the personality type of each
Thigpen and Cleckly found that during their research, they have created a new personality; Jane. She
was a compromise between Eve Black and Eve White. It was unethical that they decide whom to get rid
of so they ended their study.
EEG recordings showed that Eve Black's level of brain activity was much higher than Eve White's and
Jane's. Eve White's and Jane's recording were fairly the same, they were on a normal rate.
Psychometric tests; IQ and memory:
IQ ­ EW=110 & EB=104
Memory tests ­ EW's memory was superior to EB's.
Projective tests:
Rorschach test ­ EW had repressive personality & EB had regressive personality.
Conclusion Thigpen and Cleckley were convinced that they had witnessed an example of multiple
personality. Although Thigpen and Cleckley do not point to the cause of MPD, the received wisdom is
that MPD is usually a response to child abuse - a way for the individual to protect him or herself
Aim to investigate cognitive bias involved in gambling behaviour.
Three hypotheses:
1. Regular fruit machine gamblers would make more irrational verbalisations than non-fruit machine
2. There will be no difference between regular and non-regular fruit machine gamblers on
objective measures of skill.
3. Regular gamblers would be more skill orientated than non-regular gamblers on self-report.

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Individual differences studies
Participants 30 regular gamblers; 29males and 1female. 30 non-regular gamblers; 15males and
15females. They were all paid 3 pounds to gamble with and if they wanted they could carry on or stop
after 60 plays. Recruited via poster advertisements.
Method/procedure QUASI-EXPERIMENT
All the participants in were asked to try and stay on the machine for a minimum of 60 plays which means
they break even and win back 3 pounds from the money they put in.…read more

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Individual differences studies
The results also showed that regular gamblers made significantly more percentage irrational
verbalisations in just two of the categories ­ these were personifying the machine (e.g. `the machine
likes me') and referring to the `number system' (e.g. `I got a 2 there').
Non-regular gamblers made significantly more verbalisations in questions relating to confusion and
non-understanding, in statements relating to confusion and non-understanding and miscellaneous
Griffiths noted that regular gamblers did use a variety of heuristics although these were not abundant.…read more

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Individual differences studies
that, they were honest about their healthy selves. After they were admitted, participants were to get
discharged on their own. They made notes while residing at the hospital and behaved normally. The
duration of their stay in the hospital varied from 7 to 52 days. When the pseudo-patients got
discharged, they were labelled as "schizophrenia in remission".…read more

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Individual differences studies
monitored and many of the toilets did not have doors. Some of the ward orderlies would be brutal to
patients in full view of other patients but would stop as soon as another staff member approached. This
indicated that staffs were credible witnesses but patients were not.
Conclusion Rosenhan claims that the study demonstrates that psychiatrists cannot reliably tell the
difference between people who are sane and those who are insane.…read more


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