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Immune response
Primary Defence
Physical barriers:
Skin ­ The outer layer called the epidermis, which consists of a layer of cells. Most of these are
called keratinocytes. They are produced my mitosis at the base of the epidemide and migrate out to
the surface of the skin. As they migrate,…

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Process of phagocytosis
The innate response is triggered when receptors on phagocytes bind to nonself antigens
(chemical markers on outer membrane of foreign bodies/ pathogens). Antigens are glycoprotein
found on the surface of all cells. The antigens that cover a cell are organism/individual specific, if they
belong to the organism…

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Antibody/Immunoglobulins structure
Produced by lymphocytes in the immune system, and released in response to an infection. Their
shapes are complementary to a particular antigen and so are specific to one variation of antigens.
Our immune system has to manufacture one type of antibody for every antigen that is detected.

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Neutralisations: Antibodies attach to antigens on a pathogen that uses these antigens as a binding
site to bind with a host cell. Antibodies covering the pathogens binding site prevent the pathogen
from binding to a host cell and entering the cell. Antibodies prevent pathogens adhering to other

Agglutination: Some…

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can fight the infection successfully. This is the primary immune response and once the pathogens
have been dealt with the number of antibodies rapidly dropping.
Second Infection The immune system recognise the pathogen if the body is infected again, the
immune response is able to take action more quickly and…

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Following the presentation of antigens is clonal selection. For T cell activation to take place they
need to undergo clonal selection, which refers to the specificity of the immune response, it would
take time for a lymphocyte with a complementary receptor to bind to an antigen being represented.
No action…

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Plasma cells manufacture and release antibodies
So B cells differentiate to make B memory cells which remain specific to
pathogen it was created for.

Reproduction of T Killer cells (clonal expansion done by mitosis)
T Killer ells search for infected cells to which they attach to.
T killer…


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