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The Immune System
This is a physical barrier that blocks pathogens from entering the body and also acts as a
chemical barrier by producing chemicals that are antimicrobial and can lower pH which
inhibits the growth of pathogens.
They protect body openings that are exposed…
This activates the T lymphocyte causing it to divide and differentiate into different types
of T lymphocytes that carry out different functions.
Some of these activated T lymphocytes release substances to activate B lymphocytes.
Some of these activated T lymphocytes attach to antigens on a pathogen and kill the
They also have a hinge reigion which allows flexibility when the antibody binds to the
They also have constant regions which are the same in all antibodies. There are Disulfide
bridges to hold the polypeptide chains together.
How Antibodies Help to Clear an Infection
A way they help clear…
The secondary response often gets rid of the pathogen before you begin to show any
Primary response Secondary response
Pathogen Enteres for the first time Enters for a second time
Speed of Slow Fast
Cells activated B and T lymphocytes Memory cells
Symptoms Yes No