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Disregarding self-interest
· It is peculiar to argue that we should be moral because
it benefits us
· Being moral is about respecting and caring for other
people because they are also valuable
· So far we have looked at how reason helps us to be
moral:
· Being moral is the means to the ends of self interest
· Being moral helps us judge what is in our self interest
· Therefore, when disregarding self interest into `why
should I be moral?' we need a different concept of
`reason'…read more

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KANT: MORALITY IS BASED ON REASON
· Kant argued that self-interest is not relevant when
considering morality
· He argued acting morally is based on reason alone- acting
morally is the same as acting rationally
· He says that happiness cannot be the basis of morality. This
is for two reasons.
1. Kant says that what makes people happy is different for
everyone. So is morality was linked to happiness then
what is moral would change for everyone also. This is
wrong because morality is the same for everyone.
2. Sometimes what makes us happy is morally bad . It might
make someone happy by hitting someone but this is not
good.…read more

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KANT:MORALITY IS BASED ON REASON
· Therefore, there is something else that influences our choices and that is
REASON
· Reason helps us be moral because, it helps us reflect on different actions
and decide between them. We are not forced by desire we have a power
of will.
So how does this work? How is morality connected to reason?
1. The power to choose freely is necessary for morality
2. Reason works in a way that is independent of our desires
3. What is rational to believe is `universal' such as morality .
· So when it comes to what is reasonable to do it is the same for
everyone.
· You should act only on choices that everyone can act on such as stealing
· So according to Kant the answer to `why should I be moral?' is because not
being moral is irrational . Therefore, it is reasonable to conform to the
expectations of morality because morality is based on reason and shows
us what is irrational to do, thus, what is immoral.…read more

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Explain Kant's argument that morality can't be
about happiness
· Can young children make free choices in the
same sense that adults can? ­ no because
they cannot reason
· Explain the three features of reason that
connect to morality
· Explain Kant's argument that acting morally is
acting rationally…read more

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` ACT ONLY ON THAT MAXIM THROUGH WHICH
YOU CAN AT THE SAME TIME WILLL THAT IT
SHOULD BECOME A UNIVERSAL LAW.'
(MAXIM= DESCRIBES THE CHOICE YOU MAKE,I.E,
TO STEAL WHEN I WANT SOMETHING')
WHAT DOES THIS MEAN ?…read more

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