IGCSE Salts, Alkali's and Acids Notes

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Acids and Alkali's
- Litmus
- Phenolphthalein
- Methyl Orange
- Universal Indicator
Indicator Acid Neutral Alkaline
Universal Indicator Red Green Blue/Purple
Litmus Brick Red Blue Blue
Phenolphthalein Colourless Colourless Pink
Methyl Orange Red Orange Yellow
Acids are a source of Hydrogen ions, H+
Alkali's are a source of Hydroxide ions, OH
Acid + Alkali = Salt + Water
Metal + Hydrochloric Acid = Metal Chloride + Hydrogen
Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid = Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen
Metal + Sulphuric Acid = Metal Sulfate + Hydrogen
Magnesium + Sulphuric Acid = Magnesium Sulfate + Hydrogen
Acid + Metal Oxide = Metal Acid + Water
Sulphuric Acid + Zinc Oxide = Zinc Sulfate + Water
Acid + Metal Carbonate = Metal Acid + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Nitric Acid + Iron Carbonate = Iron Nitrate + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Metals and Acids
- Acids react with metals to form metal salts and hydrogen
- Sulphuric acid = Sulphates
- Nitric acid = Nitrate
- Hydrochloric acid = Chloride
- The hydrogen comes from the acid
- All Sodium Salts are Soluble (Na+)
- All Potassium Salts are Soluble (K+)
- All Ammonium Salts are Soluble (NH4+)
- All Sulphates, except for Barium (Ba2+), Calcium (Ca2+) and Lead (Pb2+) are Soluble
- All Chlorides, except for Silver (Ag+) and Lead (Pb2+) are Soluble
- All Carbonates, except for Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Ammonium (NH4+) are
- All Hydroxides, except for Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Ammonium (NH4+), are

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Soluble salts = Insoluble salt Acid + Metal/ Metal Oxide/ Carbonate = Soluble salt
Titration neutralisation
Use a pipette to measure out 25cm3 of alkali into a conical flask
Add a few drops of methyl orange it should turn yellow.
Fill a burette with acid to the 0cm3 point
Slowly, add 1cm3 at a time, add the acid to the alkali.
When the alkali has turned orange stop it has been neutralised.
Now, repeat the experiment.…read more


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