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Xylem Phloem
Made of dead cells. Made of living cells.
Lignin cell wall. Cellulose cell wall.
Impermeable cell walls. Permeable cell walls.
Thick cell wall. Thin cell wall.
No cytoplasm. Cells lined with cytoplasm strands.
Transports water and minerals. Transports food.
Carries water and minerals to leaves. Carries food to growing parts + storage
No cross walls. Perforates cross walls.
Tissue also contains fibres. Tissue also has companion cells.
Flow is upward. Flow is up and down.…read more

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Transpiration is the evaporation of water from the surface of a plant.
The water evaporates from the surface of the cells inside the leaf and then diffuse out
through the open stomata. This then causes more water to be rise up the xylem to the
leaves for the cells to use in photosynthesis.
Factor Description Explanation
Light In bright light The stomata open wider to allow more
transpiration increases. CO into the leaf for photosynthesis.…read more

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A potometer measures the rate of uptake of water by a plant. This is proportional to
the rate of transpiration.
1. Set up a simple potometer as shown in the diagram. To do this, cut the stem of a
fresh twig at an angle under water, being careful not to get the leaves wet.
2. Insert the cut end of the twig into the rubber tubing, under water.
3.…read more


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