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Defining ethnicity
Hutchinson & Smith's 6 features:
· A common proper name
· A myth of common ancestry- common origin.
· Shared historical memories- events and heroes.
· One or more elements of a common culture- language, culture and
religion.
· A link with a homeland- physical occupation or symbolic attachment.
· A sense of solidarity- togetherness
Ethnicity if different from class in that "social membership and ranking... is
based on attributes regarded as extrinsic to the people who comprise the
class... Such as amount of income, occupation, education, consumption
patterns and `lifestyle'- Gerald Berreman.
- By this he means that class is different because you can change your social
class, it is not predetermined at birth like ethnicity is.…read more

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Multiculturalism
· Definition- a society where a variety of cultures,
beliefs and ethnicities can peacefully co-exist.
· Is Britain too culturally diverse?
· David Cameron- multiculturalism is a well-
meaning government agenda that has failed.
· Or is just an inevitable outcome of a modern,
diverse, pluralist democracy.
· "Ghettos", separated communities and separated
education.…read more

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Push and pull factors of immigration
Because Britain is made up of more than 90% "white
British" there are areas that are predominantly
African-Caribbean, Asian, Chinese, Jewish etc.
· Pull-Immigration was encouraged to certain parts
of the country with certain industries after the
war (e.g. Mill towns in Northern England).
· Pull-Newer immigrants are pulled towards
communities because of language, support
networks, family, food and religious institutions.
· Push- hostility and racism elsewhere.…read more

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Criticisms of multiculturalism
· "Ghettos"- pockets or communities made up
predominantly of a certain ethnic group.
· A lack of shared, British culture- many of those
involved in the 7/7 bombings had been born, brought
up and taught in Britain.
· Norman Tebbit's "cricket test"- which team you
support in a test match proves where their loyalties lie.
· Assimilation- some people are argue that when
immigrants emigrate into a country they should
abandon the culture and beliefs of their country of
origin and adapt those of their new country.
But is it more an issue of skin colour than ethnic origin?…read more

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The issue of religious dress
· An issue that has divided Islam in Britain.
· France banned the public wearing of niqabs and
burkhas and there were calls for the UK to do the
same.
· One British Imam burned niqabs to illustrate his
opposition to them.
· Geert Wilders' wild prophesis of the
`Islamification" of Europe.
· Feminist perspective- the niqab and burka is a
symbol of the oppression of women.…read more

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