Ideas in context

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The exam may ask you questions on:
peer review: This is where scientists who are experts in the same field
of work, as the scientist who produced the data, critically evaluate the
results and repeat it. This is to check whether it's reliable, by
comparing it to their own data, to see whether they obtain the same
results. If the majority of the scientists do, then the results of the
original data is therefore reliable, and can be published in the
medical/scientific journal. If not, they can discard the investigation; spot
outliers, and prevent it from getting published in the journal, as it's
proven, that it's not the correct data, and consequently wouldn't show
the correct effects of it, which may harm people.
As the pre-release mentions that "Fibrillin is a protein", the examiner
may ask you: what are proteins?
ANSWER: Proteins are long chained polymers, which consists of smaller
monomers that are amino acids.
Furthermore the text states that the cream was "put through
some testing".
How do scientists test new medicines?
There are three stages:
Stage one: human cells
Human cells are grown in a laboratory. Scientists use different concentrations
of the drug to see which one is the most effective and safe. Also they test the
drugs on different types of body cells with the disease. The reason they test
the new medicines on human cells is because they want to see how effective it
is and whether it is more safe to use on humans.
Stage two: Animal test
To see whether the drug work well on the whole animal as it had done on the
cells. This is because humans have similar cells to animals- animal cells.
Moreover, it's to check whether it is safer to test on humans. Note animal
testing is banned on certain products.
Stage three: clinical trials
This is where scientists can see the real and true results of the drug and how
effective and safe it actually is.
There are three different trails scientists can take
Blind trials- where the doctor knows what drug (placebo or the new drug) the
patient is taking, but the patient doesn't.

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Double blind trial- when the doctor and patient both don't know what drug
they are giving/ taking
Open trial- where both patient and doctor know what drug they are giving /
taking
There are random groups where healthy and ill people are randomly placed in
a group that is taking the new drug or isn't (control group)…read more

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