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ICT Revision Notes

Organisational Structure

There are three pillars of resources for all organisation, which are shown in the table:

People Organisation Technology
Career Strategy Hardware
Education Policy Software
Training Mission Statement Telecommunications
Attitudes Culture Information systems
Participation Management
Monitoring Bureaucracy
Environment Competition

Successful organisations are those that:

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Organisational Structure

Is very important to an organisation if it is to be effective in general this will be hierarchical. The
work force will be arranged so that a particular employee has a manager. The manager will in turn
be responsible to a higher level manager. At the top of…

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DIRECTION Seeing people do their job.

CONTROLLING Evaluating performance against plans that were

Data Processing Systems

Data Processing Systems are also known as transaction processing systems. A
transaction is any event that is recorded, whether it's a sale, or signing up to a college
course. The data is recorded…

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Information Flow

External Information flow

Customer enquiries generated from website, e-mails, texts etc.
Sales order from customer by fax, website, EDI etc.
Customer after sales liaison from expert system, on-line control etc.
Finding new customers and securing of new business ­ call centres, multiple e-mail
postings etc.
Quotation responses to…

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Information systems & organisations

Information systems and organisations

Understand the difference between an Information System and a Data Processing
System. Understand the role and relevance of an Information System in
Decision-Making. (Chapter 36)

Definition of a Management Information System

Recall that an MIS is a system to convert data from…

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A formal flow of information is one in which a procedure is adopted, e.g. the
downloading of sales figures from several branches first thing on a Monday
morning. External data can be collected using specialised data collection
agencies such as Dun and Bradstreet who produce economic data for academic

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A system to convert data from internal and external sources into information. This
system is a combination of computers and human users that manage data collection,
storage and the transformation of data into useful information.
The MIS must then make sure that information is communicated in an appropriate
form to…

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The complete MIS

MIS needed to be extended beyond its narrow definition where managers can test the effect of
their decisions.

A MIS cannot realistically be expected to provide for all the information needs of the management.
Tools to support decision-making have been developed to help the MIS

Operational Systems…

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An inadequate analysis leading to the quality of decisions being impaired
A lack of management involvement in design. Different managers
have different information needs. Changes in the environment can
trigger a significant change in the information requirements of individual
An over-emphasis on computer system itself rather than the people…

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Feasibility Study

The scope and objectives of the system are specified. The aim is to understand the
problem and see if it is worth continuing. A feasibility report is produced by the
systems analyst which considers the five main factors which are (TELOS):

Technical feasibility ­ investigating if the technology…


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