ICT Revision Notes on module 4

ICT Revision Notes on module 4

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  • Created on: 28-04-09 13:34
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ICT Revision Notes
Organisational Structure
There are three pillars of resources for all organisation, which are shown in the table:
People Organisation Technology
Career Strategy Hardware
Education Policy Software
Training Mission Statement Telecommunications
Attitudes Culture Information systems
Participation Management
Monitoring Bureaucracy
Environment Competition
Successful organisations are those that:
Have people of vision and champions of change to lead them;
Unlock the potential of their staff. This is done by creating a culture of genuine
empowerment of staff to focus on the customer. They also encourage good
communication, teamwork and training. They flatten any hierarchical pyramids.
Know their customers ­ constantly learning from others and rising to the
challenges placed by demanding customers. This leads to innovation and
Produce new and successful products or services by a good knowledge of
competitors, encouraging innovation to exploit new ideas.
Focus on the core business, complemented by strategic alliances.
Exceed their customers' expectations.
A good company will regard its people as a key resource, not a economic cost. It is a
mark of good management that all employees are empowered to realise their potential,
and benefit from training to do so.
Managements of all organisations have four internal functions they need to control:
1. Production to make the goods or services;
2. Sales and marketing to get the product sold;
3. Human resources (personnel to you) to hire and train workers;
4. Finance to pay for the activities.

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Organisational Structure
Is very important to an organisation if it is to be effective in general this will be hierarchical. The
work force will be arranged so that a particular employee has a manager. The manager will in turn
be responsible to a higher level manager. At the top of the hierarchy is the owner, board of
directors, parent company or whoever has ultimate responsibility for the organisation.…read more

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DIRECTION Seeing people do their job.
CONTROLLING Evaluating performance against plans that were
Data Processing Systems
Data Processing Systems are also known as transaction processing systems. A
transaction is any event that is recorded, whether it's a sale, or signing up to a college
course. The data is recorded and dealt with by some process.…read more

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Information Flow
External Information flow
Customer enquiries generated from website, e-mails, texts etc.
Sales order from customer by fax, website, EDI etc.
Customer after sales liaison from expert system, on-line control etc.
Finding new customers and securing of new business ­ call centres, multiple e-mail
postings etc.
Quotation responses to customer e-mail attachments, video-conferencing etc.
Auto acknowledgement of order to customer via e-mail, EDI etc.
Promoting products, advertising campaigns ­ DTP, website etc.…read more

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Information systems & organisations
Information systems and organisations
Understand the difference between an Information System and a Data Processing
System. Understand the role and relevance of an Information System in
Decision-Making. (Chapter 36)
Definition of a Management Information System
Recall that an MIS is a system to convert data from internal and external sources
into information. This is communicated in an appropriate form to managers at
different levels, enabling them to make effective decisions for planning, directing
and controlling activities for which they are responsible.…read more

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A formal flow of information is one in which a procedure is adopted, e.g. the
downloading of sales figures from several branches first thing on a Monday
morning. External data can be collected using specialised data collection
agencies such as Dun and Bradstreet who produce economic data for academic
and commercial organisations. Formal flows can also come from people working
on the same document at several locations, or by use of e-mail, or by use of
company intranets.…read more

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A system to convert data from internal and external sources into information. This
system is a combination of computers and human users that manage data collection,
storage and the transformation of data into useful information.…read more

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The complete MIS
MIS needed to be extended beyond its narrow definition where managers can test the effect of
their decisions.
A MIS cannot realistically be expected to provide for all the information needs of the management.
Tools to support decision-making have been developed to help the MIS
Operational Systems (see previous topic) produce payroll, accounting, stock control etc.
Information. These are largely automated reports on which decisions are based upon a
formula, i.e. by and large structured decisions.…read more

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An inadequate analysis leading to the quality of decisions being impaired
A lack of management involvement in design. Different managers
have different information needs. Changes in the environment can
trigger a significant change in the information requirements of individual
An over-emphasis on computer system itself rather than the people
who use it
An over-concentration on low-level data processing, (undue
concentration on transaction processing systems) lack of management
knowledge of IT systems and their capabilities.…read more

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Feasibility Study
The scope and objectives of the system are specified. The aim is to understand the
problem and see if it is worth continuing. A feasibility report is produced by the
systems analyst which considers the five main factors which are (TELOS):
Technical feasibility ­ investigating if the technology exists to implement the
Economic Feasibility ­ establishing the cost-effectiveness of the system ­ do the
benefits outweigh the costs?
Legal Feasibility ­ Is there any conflict with system and legal requirements e.g.…read more


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