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Question 6 Ice on the Land

The last Ice age

18,000 years ago ice covered about 30 per cent of the land in the world. In Britain,
ice covered land as far as the Bristol Channel. During the last ice age the temperature
remained below 0°C which allowed the…

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Identify plants and animals that lived in colder/warmer climates to find out how
climate changed over time.


Glacial Budgets
Glacial budget
-the balance between the inputs (accumulation) and the outputs
(ablation) of a glacier.

Positive budget means it is advancing
Negative budget means that it is retreating.


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A process of glacial erosion where individual rocks are plucked from the valley floor or
sides as water freezes them to the glacier.
It occurs when rocks and stones become frozen to the base or sides of the glacier and
are plucked from the ground or rock face as…

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Key Features
Steep back wall
Raised lip
Over-deepened hollow
Once ice has gone it leaves a Corrie lakeor tarnif precipitation is higher than


An arête is a knife-edge ridge.
It is formed when two neighbouring corries run back to back.
As each glacier erodes either side of the…

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If three or more corries have formed on a mountain the steep back walls are

Forms a sharp point
They are steep
The aretes radiate outwards

Glacial Trough, Truncated Spurs, Hanging Valleys and Ribbon Lakes

Glacial Trough
Glaciers cut distinctive U-shaped valleys with a flat floor and steep sides.…

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Key facts
7Km long and 200metres deep
Forms NNW from MT Blanc towards Switzerland
Close to Charmonix an important ski resort
Since 1850 it has almost constantly retreated due to global warming.
Advanced briefly 1970-80'sdue to a change in weather patterns and sudden drops in
temperature 150metres
Can be explored…

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On melting the medial moraine forms a ridge down the centre of the valley
A ridge of sediment running down the centre of a glacier formed when two lateral
moraines merge
Medial moraines are found at the junction between two glaciers.

Terminal Moraine
This is huge amounts of material piled…

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Formation of a drumlin

The shape of the drumlin indicates the direction in which the glacier was moving.
The drumlin would have been deposited when the glacier became overloaded with
sediment after it hit an obstacle.
The steep blunt end was formed when glacial material was deposited.
The glacier then…

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Impacts of glacial retreat on tourism:

Unreliable snowfall & retreating glaciers are impacting on the economies of such areas.
= less tourists
Snow not thick enough for skiing and businesses such as hotels may have to close
Unemployment will increase in the area and younger generation may move away…

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Cause serious injuries Restaurants and hotels could be
destroyed or forced to close.

Buildings in the path could be
flattened or buried. If tourism declines businesses will
suffer and tour guides and instructors
risk unemployment.
Roads are often blocked slowing
rescue efforts
Businesses could close and force the
migration of…


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