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Ice on the Land
Glacials and Ice Ages
In the last 800,000 years, 1015 glacials have occurred.
The average global temperature only needs to decrease about 2 for an ice age to occur.
The last ice age was the Pleistocene Epoch. It began about 2 million years ago and ended…

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Causes of Glacial Retreat & Advance
Sun spots: The output of the sun slightly varies over decades due to sunspots. High levels of
sunspot activity reduce annual ablation rates.
Volcanic Eruptions: Volcanoes can eject km3s of dust into the atmosphere. This acts as an
insulator of the earth from the…

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becomes present. This provides lubrication, allowing the glacier to slide over the surface
(this is basal sliding).
This type of movement in corries results in rotational slip.
Gravity causes the movement of the glacier to be downhill.

Basal Sliding: Meltwater acts as a lubricant, allowing glaciers to slide down surfaces.…

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5. Eventually, the glacier melts and a misfit stream or ribbon lake occupies the valley. The
hanging valley creates a waterfall.
Ribbon Lake: A long narrow lake on the floor of a glacial valley which is often blocked by a
terminal moraine.

Identifying Glacial Features on an OS Map

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Reduces 200 tonnes of emissions per year

Economic Effects Environmental Effects
Provides lots of jobs in the Deforestation
resort and in hotels etc. So less Noise pollution ­ affects hibernating animals and
young people move away to find residents
jobs. Carbon emissions from building and flights ­ a cause

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Situated in Weheka in the Westland National Park.
The glacier was advancing from 19852005, but is now retreating. These changes in
movements are caused by varying amounts of accumulation and ablation.
Activities available there include hiking tours, helicopter rides, ice climbing and ski diving.
The weather patterns are sudden and…

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