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The Nuclear Atom
Atoms contain protons neutrons and electrons
The Mass Number (larger number) contains the number of protons and neutrons
While the Atomic Number (smaller number) contains the number of protons only.
o Subtract the atomic from mass number to get the number of neutrons

Particle Relative Mass Relative…

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Mass Spectrometer
Separates particles based on their mass

Vaporisation ­ heat to turn the substance into a
gas
Ionisation ­ by bombardment of high energy
electrons to knock out an electron to form a positive ion
Acceleration ­ by an electric field
Deflection ­ by a magnetic field
Detection ­…

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Electron Arrangement
Electrons are arranged in shells (energy levels), which contain sub shells (s,p,d,f)

The Hydrogen Spectrum provides evidence for this structure
A continuous spectrum contains all the wavelengths/frequencies/colour/energies of electromagnetic
radiation
Hydrogen in a discharge tube shows a line spectrum, which contains only certain
wavelengths/frequencies/colours/energies of electromagnetic radiation
o…

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Sub-shell structure
There are four different types of sub-shells
An orbital is region of space where there is a high probability of finding an electron. It represents a discrete
energy level. They contain a max of 2 electrons

Sub-shell Typical Shape Number of orbitals Max. Electrons in
(orbital) sub-shell
s…

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E.g. Magnesium, in the s block, group number 2 and in period 3, will end its electronic configuration with 3s2
(Read off previous full sub shells, starting from Hydrogen, to get the full configuration)

Hund's Rule
Electrons fill orbitals of the same energy (subshell) one at a time, when each…

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Successive Ionisation Energies: when removing electrons from an element (from out to in), we can see some
disproportionate jumps as some electrons are removed. This indicates they are being removed from different main
energy levels. Generally, ionisation energy increases from left to right across a period. The attraction on the…

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