IB Chemistry - Atomic Structure notes

Easy to read notes on all of the syllabus specifications for Topic 2 of the HL syllabus.

Can be printed off and used as revision cards. (A5 size pages)

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  • Created by: Matt Reid
  • Created on: 03-05-10 12:30
Preview of IB Chemistry - Atomic Structure notes

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The Nuclear Atom
Atoms contain protons neutrons and electrons
The Mass Number (larger number) contains the number of protons and neutrons
While the Atomic Number (smaller number) contains the number of protons only.
o Subtract the atomic from mass number to get the number of neutrons
Particle Relative Mass Relative Charge
PROTON 1 +1
NEUTRON 1 0 (neutral)
ELECTRON 5x10-4 -1
Isotopes have the same chemical properties (react in the same way) as they have the same number of
electrons
But they have different physical properties (melting and boiling points) as they have different masses
and move at different speeds
Radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of an element
14C used in radiocarbon dating to date fossils and
60Co used in radiotherapy to destroy cancerous cells with gamma rays
131I and 125I used as a medical tracer to generate pictures of the activity of the thyroid gland

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Mass Spectrometer
Separates particles based on their mass
Vaporisation ­ heat to turn the substance into a
gas
Ionisation ­ by bombardment of high energy
electrons to knock out an electron to form a positive ion
Acceleration ­ by an electric field
Deflection ­ by a magnetic field
Detection ­ of ions
To calculate the Relative Average Atomic Mass of
different isotopes of an element, times the mass and
abundance together of each isotope, add them together
and divide by 100
To calculate the Natural…read more

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Electron Arrangement
Electrons are arranged in shells (energy levels), which contain sub shells (s,p,d,f)
The Hydrogen Spectrum provides evidence for this structure
A continuous spectrum contains all the wavelengths/frequencies/colour/energies of electromagnetic
radiation
Hydrogen in a discharge tube shows a line spectrum, which contains only certain
wavelengths/frequencies/colours/energies of electromagnetic radiation
o The electron in hydrogen can be given extra energy by a fast moving electron in the discharge tube,
which causes it to be promoted to a higher energy level
o We can then see lines…read more

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Sub-shell structure
There are four different types of sub-shells
An orbital is region of space where there is a high probability of finding an electron. It represents a discrete
energy level. They contain a max of 2 electrons
Sub-shell Typical Shape Number of orbitals Max.…read more

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E.g. Magnesium, in the s block, group number 2 and in period 3, will end its electronic configuration with 3s2
(Read off previous full sub shells, starting from Hydrogen, to get the full configuration)
Hund's Rule
Electrons fill orbitals of the same energy (subshell) one at a time, when each orbital has one they begin to double up.…read more

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Successive Ionisation Energies: when removing electrons from an element (from out to in), we can see some
disproportionate jumps as some electrons are removed. This indicates they are being removed from different main
energy levels. Generally, ionisation energy increases from left to right across a period. The attraction on the
outer electron from extra protons which are added across a period increases, and so does the ionisation energy.…read more

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