Hydological change - Flooding LEDC Case study

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Causes Monsoon downpour Causes Deforestation Causes Excessive development Effects Of flooding event
The major monsoon occurs in South East Asia. Increasingly frequent flooding in Bangladesh Rapid population growth creates extra 7million homes were destroyed and over
The summer monsoon was responsible for the is attributed to the removal of trees in the pressure on the land of already overcrowded 25million were made homeless
excessive rainfall in Bangladesh. An increased forests of Nepal and other Himalayan areas. A Bangladesh. Agricultural lands give way to Poorly maintained embankments may
amount of precipitation can cause flooding. An rapid increase in population in the Indian housing developments and roads. This rapid
leak and collapse
above normal monsoon downpour in the subcontinent over the course of the present development and urbanisation must have
Ganges ­ Brahmaputra ­ Megna drainage century has resulted in an acceleration of aggravated the flooding problem in Damage was estimated at US$1.5billion
system is thought to be the primary cause of deforestation in the hills of Nepal to meet the Bangladesh. Prior to urbanisation there is a Half a million cattle and poultry were also
the flood in Bangladesh. It Is not known, increasing demand for food and fuel wood. greater lag time between intense rainfall and lost
however, if the heavy precipitation is actually peak stream flow. After urbanisation the lag The delta distributaries allow for a
an effect or other processes such as time is shortened, peak flow is greatly prosperous fishing industry (aquaculture)
greenhouse effect or destruction of forests in increased, and total run-off is compressed into to develop
the upstream region. a shorter time interval favourable conditions The death toll was over 1300 ­ most
for intense flooding.
deaths were due to drowning but others
died from diseases such as dysentery and
Causes Snow melt in the Causes Failed river Causes Other Response
Himalayas management
The Himalayas are one of the few places in Before the floods the Bangladesh government The area is made up of flood plain & delta Government distributed money and 400
the world that retain permanent glaciers. In proposed and carried out the `Flood Action 70% of total area less than 1m above sea tonnes of rice, fresh water, water
the warmer summer season however glacial Plan' which used embankments along the level purification and sanitation devices
ice goes through a period of melt. The source length of the main rivers. The aim was to have
80% of the land is a floodplain Aid agencies supplied medicines, boats
of the Brahmaputra starts in the Himalayas and controlled the distribution and speed of
Rivers, lakes and swamps cover 10% of for rescue, drinking water, set up medical
an increase in melt water flowing through its flooding. However the embankments were not
drainage basin will increase channel flow, designed to cope with the amount of flood land area treatment centres, distributed food and
saturate solids and cause massive overland water. Breaches in the embankments Tropical storm waves and cyclones cause shelter plus fodder for livestock
flow ­ a major cause of flooding. resulted causing wide spread flooding. Rivers heavy rain and coastal flooding Aid workers also planned a rehabilitation
naturally change the shape of their channels Snowmelt in Himalayas in spring and programme to repair and construct
and are never still. Critics argue that by trying summer housing and sanitation
to control them can lead to worse affects than
Monsoon climate (1800 ­ 2600mm of rain Other countries gave aid including
if were never built at all.
a year) millions of tonnes of wheat, and money
Silt deposition blocks channel and raises for medicines, water tables, housing
river bed repair, sanitation and rehabilitation or
Deforestation in Nepal and Himalayas ­ farming and fishing
increases run-off
Building damns in India

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Impact of global warming causing sea International approach needed to reduce
levels to rise deforestation and dam building in other
countries that affect Bangladesh
Case study ­ flooding in a Less economically developed country ­ Bangladesh *See blue book for extra information!!…read more


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