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Revision Guide | Hope Raybould

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There are 2 types of reproduction-


Only 1 parent/ individual needed
no gametes involved
clones formed/ mitosis
genetic variation only occurs due to mutation

Sexual reproduction-

Involves gametes
2 parents/ individuals needed
genetic variation due to meiosis and random fission of gametes

Cell cycle



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o 2nd division- separates chromatids

Homologous chromosomes-

One from mom and one from dad
Each member of the pair-
o are exactly the same length
o have centromere in the same place
o contain the same number of genes
o genes are arranged in the same linear order

Meiosis 1-…

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Nucleoli disappear, centrioles migrate, nuclear envelope breaks down, spindle formation

Metaphase I ­

Paired chromosomes, bivalents, line up along the equator of a cell and attach to the spindle

Anaphase I ­

Homologous chromosomes separate to opposite poles of the cell.

Telophase I ­

Doesn't always occur.
Spindle fibres…

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Metaphase I

Anaphase I

Telophase I

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

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Reproductive Systems


Found in the scrotum
Produce male gametes (sperm)
Leydig cells produce and secrete testosterone
Controlled by anterior pituitary gland

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Epididymus and vas deferens collect and store spermatazoa from testes.
Ejaculatory ducts converge on urethra, spermatazoa expelled from urethra.

Exocrine glands

Include seminal vesicles and prostate glands.
They secrete a nutritive and lubricating fluid called seminal fluid.
Semen consists of sperm, seminal fluid, mucus and cells lost from duct…

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Carry ovum from ovary to uterus
Fertilisation of the oviduct usually takes place in an oviduct


Hollow, pear shaped muscular organ
Lining of the uterus (endometrium) undergoes cyclical changes due to changes in the levels
of oestrogen and progesterone.
The cervix is part of the uterus


Muscular tube…


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