Human Reproduction

Everything you need for AS biology on human reproduction. Made for the old syllabus but hopefully still useful. Contains meosis, reproductive systems, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, the menstrual cycle and fertillisation.

Hope you find it useful!

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  • Created by: Hope
  • Created on: 19-11-08 15:02
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5/21/2008

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Revision Guide | Hope Raybould…read more

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Reproduction
There are 2 types of reproduction-
Asexual-
Only 1 parent/ individual needed
no gametes involved
clones formed/ mitosis
genetic variation only occurs due to mutation
Sexual reproduction-
Involves gametes
2 parents/ individuals needed
meiosis
genetic variation due to meiosis and random fission of gametes
Cell cycle
Meiosis
General-
Meiosis produces gametes (ova and sperm) during the process of gametogenesis
Gametogenesis- the reduction in number of chromosomes from 2n (diploid-46
chromosomes) to n (haploid-32 chromosomes)
Meiosis occurs in the reproductive organs to form gametes-
o…read more

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Homologous chromosomes-
One from mom and one from dad
Each member of the pair-
o are exactly the same length
o have centromere in the same place
o contain the same number of genes
o genes are arranged in the same linear order
Meiosis 1-
Prophase I ­
Become visible as single threads
condensation occurs to form chromosome structure
Homologous chromosomes pair up along their length;
this is called synapsis.
Homologous chromosomes come together to form a
bivalent.…read more

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Nucleoli disappear, centrioles migrate, nuclear envelope breaks down, spindle formation
occurs.
Metaphase I ­
Paired chromosomes, bivalents, line up along the equator of a cell and attach to the spindle
Anaphase I ­
Homologous chromosomes separate to opposite poles of the cell.
Telophase I ­
Doesn't always occur.
Spindle fibres disappear, nucleus and nuclear envelope forms around chromosomes
Cytokenesis I ­
Cell divides along the equator, creating 2 haploids cells
Meiosis 2-
Prophase II ­
No prophase II if telophase and interphase doesn't occur.…read more

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Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Telophase II…read more

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Reproductive Systems
Male
Testes
Found in the scrotum
Produce male gametes (sperm)
Leydig cells produce and secrete testosterone
Controlled by anterior pituitary gland…read more

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Ducts
Epididymus and vas deferens collect and store spermatazoa from testes.
Ejaculatory ducts converge on urethra, spermatazoa expelled from urethra.
Exocrine glands
Include seminal vesicles and prostate glands.
They secrete a nutritive and lubricating fluid called seminal fluid.
Semen consists of sperm, seminal fluid, mucus and cells lost from duct system.…read more

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Carry ovum from ovary to uterus
Fertilisation of the oviduct usually takes place in an oviduct
Uterus-
Hollow, pear shaped muscular organ
Lining of the uterus (endometrium) undergoes cyclical changes due to changes in the levels
of oestrogen and progesterone.…read more

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