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Human Health and Disease…read more

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Health and Disease
· Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being.
· The different categories of disease are;
Type of disease Description Example
Physical Temporary or permanent damage to your body Torn knee cartilage
Mental Psychological disorder Depression
Social Disease caused by social conditions or environments Obesity or asbestos poisoning
Infectious Caused by another organism which enters the body Influenza virus
Non-infectious Can't be passed from one person to another Cancer
Degenerative Age-related wear and tear of tissues or organs Osteoarthritis
Inherited Defective you have done to yourself Cystic fibrosis
Self- inflicted Damage you have to done to yourself Emphysema from smoking
Deficiency A health problem caused by inadequate diet Scurvy due to lack of vitamin C…read more

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Human Genome Project
· Human Genome project is an international project that has
identifies every human gene and aims to work out what each
one codes for.
· Potential advantages for improving health:
· Can change genetic inheritance by eliminating genes that
codes for inherited disease
· More accurate diagnosis of disease can be made
· Better drugs can be made to target specific diseases
· Make drugs with fewer side-effects
· More information to base medical research on…read more

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· Infectious Diseases are caused by Micro- Organisms- such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae or protozoa
· Organisms that cause infectious diseases are called pathogens
· Animal diseases are caused by bacteria and viruses
· Plant diseases are caused by fungi and viruses.
· Epidemiology is the study of patterns of diseases using statistics, can be used to decide on suitable cures
and treatments for diseases.
· Mortality- number of deaths from a diseases over time
· Incidence number of cases of diseases over a period of time.
· Morbidity- number of people who are suffering from a particular disease in a given time
· Diseases can spread across the world;
1. Pandemic- spread of disease internationally, e.g. HIV and SARS
2. Epidemic- rapid spread of disease in a population e.g. Flu
3. Endemic- a common disease that is always present in a population e.g. Measles
· Health cures vary between countries;
· In LEDC's- suffer more deaths from infectious diseases like malaria and TB, have lower life expectancy,
poor medicine care, housing and diet- increases the incidence of disease, high infant mortality rate from
diarrhoea and measles.
· In MEDC's- fewer deaths from infectious diseases, higher life expectancy, better medical services, housing
and diet- lowers the incidence of disease, low infant mortality rate and more deaths from degenerative
diseases due to unhealthy lifestyles- coronary heart disease, obesity and cirrhosis of the liver due to
alcoholism…read more

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Balanced Diets and Essential Nutrients
· 5 essential nutrients for a balanced diet are; carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals.
· Large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules during digestion. Nutrients are absorbed as small molecules by
the microvilli in the small intestine.
· Carbohydrates are broke down and absorbed as monosaccharide's
· Lipids are broken down and absorbed as fatty acids and glycerol
· Proteins are broken down and absorbed as amino acids.
Nutrients Functions
Carbohydrates Provides energy
Lipids Store energy, provide insulation, physically protects organs
Proteins Growth and repair of tissue
Vitamins Vitamin B- ATP production, Vitamin K for blood clotting
Mineral Ions Iron for healthy blood, Calcium for bone formation and strength
Fibre Keeps the gut in good working order
Water Used in hydrolytic reaction. Constant supply to replace lost water thought urinating, breathing and sweating
· Different Factors affect energy and nutrients needs;
· Age- young people need more protein for growth. Old people need more calcium for their bones to prevent degenerative
bone diseases such as osteoarthritis
· Gender- females need more iron for the loss of blood during menstruation
· Pregnancy- women need more vitamin A for bone formation of the foetus
· Lactation- Breast feeding mothers need extra protein, vitamin D and iron
· Physical Activity- Active people need more protein for muscle development and more carbohydrates for energy.…read more

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DRVs- Dietary Reference Values- recommendation made by the Government on estimated energy and nutritional
requirements for particular groups of the UK population. Related to age, gender, level of fitness and body size
· DRV- DIETARY REFERWENCE VALUES- government recommendation based on scientific studies
· EAR- ESTIMATED AVERAGE REQUIREMENT- of energy or nutrients
· BMR- BASEL METABOLIC RATE- the speed at which energy is used up in the body
· PAL- PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS- varies with type and length of activity and your own body size
Physical activity increases BMR. Calculation on energy needs can be made using DRVs
· There are 10 amino acids that the body cant make- called essential amino acids as its essential that they're in our
· Some amino acids make non-essential ones- for example the essential amino acid phenylalanine can be converted
into the non-essential amino acid tyrosine.
· The used of essential amino acid and fatty acids are;
· Amino acids are used to make proteins required by the body
· essential fatty acids heal wounds and prevent hair loss
· fatty acids ensure healthy growth in babies
· Linolenic acid- makes phospholipids found in cell membranes and lowers cholesterol levels in blood plasma, can
be converted into other fatty acids.
· Body needs small amounts of vitamins for specific functions;
· Vitamin A- from meat and vegetables. Essential for keeping epithelial cells in good condition and for healthy
· Vitamin D- found in oily fish and eggs. Controls calcium absorption to make strong bones and teeth. Helps absorb
the phosphorus needed for making ATP and nucleic acids.…read more

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