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Human Geography Notes: Population

Total Population= natural change ± net migration
Natural Change= birth rate ± death rate
Net migration = immigrants ± emigrants

Factors affecting population
Sparsely populated Densely populated
Rugged mountains Flat, lowland plains
Low levels of rainfall Reliable rainfall
Drought areas No temperature extremes
Extreme weather…

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Political Factors:
Economy strength
People can afford more children
Wider access of healthcare
Environmental Factors:
Environmental conditions which breed disease reduced
Natural disasters

If the fertility rate is 2.1 or higher, the population will replace itself
Fertility rate varies because of:
Death Rate: high death rates counteract high fertility…

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How does mortality vary?
Infant Mortality:
A prime indicator of socioeconomic development. Areas with high infant mortality have high
rates of mortality overall

Medical infrastructure:
Areas with high medical infrastructure have low levels of mortality. Lack of prenatal and post
natal care, a shortage of medical facilities, lack of trained…

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Reasons for high death rate:
High disease
Poor nutrition and famine
Poor hygiene/sanitation levels
Underdeveloped or inadequate health facilities

Stage 2 (early expanding):
A period of high birth rate but falling death rate. The population begins to expand rapidly.
Reasons for falling death rate:
Improved public health
Better nutrition

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A later period, during which the death rate slightly exceeds the birth rate. This causes
population decline. Only recognised in recent years in some western European countries.
Reasons for low birth rate:
Greater financial independence of women
Concern about impact of increased population
Increase in non-traditional lifestyles (same sex relationships)…

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Population 20-59
The higher the dependency ratio, the more non-economically active proportion is dependent
on the working population.

Juvenility ratio= population 0-19
Population 20+

The higher the juvenility index, the greater proportion of younger people in a population

Old age index= population 60+
Population 20-59

The higher…

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Falling death rate
High population growth
Longer life expectancy

Stage 4

Low birth rate
Low death rate
Higher dependency ratio
Longer life expectancy

Stage 5

Falling birth rate
Low death rate
Declining population growth

Why are people living longer?
Medical reasons: Better access to healthcare and medical developments (treatments)

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Economic Travel companies such as Less tax money is generated
saga holidays specialise in as there's an economically
travel for older people- `grey active population and more
pound' pensions to pay- high
Creates job opportunities in dependency ratio- who will
the growing sector of pay?
retirement homes and More strain…

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What are the impacts of a youthful population?
Pressure on health services: the presence of HIV/AIDS which is passed from mother to
child and through unprotected sex. This strains the health service and will do more so when
the youthful population begin to have children
Unemployment: the issue of unemployment…

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Population views
Optimistic approaches
States that the limits of the environment which restricts activity can be altered by the use
of appropriate technology. Argues that food resources are created by population pressure
and if there was more demand, farm supplies would adapt to supply the demand. Necessity
is the…




Wow! This is amazing! Thanks

Mr A Gibson


All the general theory you need presented with loads of visuals. A great addition to your folder of notes on population.



v good?



Great for geography revision! I recommend

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