How successful was foreign policy under Northumberland?

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How successful was foreign policy
under Northumberland?
How successfully was war with France and Scotland brought to a
S fell from power Oct 1549. Jan 1550 N estab himself as Lord President of Council and was ruling
country/directing FP.
Fr had taken advantage of Eng.'s domestic difficulties (WR and KR). In Aug 1549, while Eng.
countryside in open rebellion, H2 had attacked Boulogne. Fr succeeded in cutting supply lines
between Calais and Boulogne, but Eng. victory at sea meant Eng. navy retained control of Channel. N
faced with unpleasant position:
Eng. bankrupt, so unable to raise army to relieve siege of Boulogne
attempts to get support from CV had failed
however H2 still concerned CV might intervene on Eng.'s side in dispute
abandonment of Boulogne would be highly unpopular
N still attempting to secure strong power-base at court so needed all support he could get
under ToArdres Fr bought back Boulogne for 2 million crowns 1554
Jan 1550 Lord Russell and Lord Paget sent to Fr to negotiate settlement with Fr who were clearly in
much stronger bargaining position.
Terms of the Treaty of Boulogne 28th March 1550
1. Eng. gave up control of Boulogne in return for 400,000 crowns (more than H2 wanted to pay
but much less than was promised to H8)
2. marriage arranged between E6 and Eliz (daughter of H2) with Eliz bringing dowry of 200,000
crowns (marriage agreed at ToAngers 1551 but never took place)
3. Eng. agreed to pull all troops out of Scot and not declare war unless provoked
4. Eng. and Fr made defensive alliance and Eng. agreed to remain neutral in continental wars
5. fortress at Boulogne passed intact to Fr and all Eng. artillery/stores remained there
6. Eng. claim to Fr throne not abandoned
7. KoFr no longer to pay pension to KoEng
Town of Boulogne was militarily/strategically useless, but loss v. signif. It was a humiliating
abandonment of H8's most glorious foreign adventure. Eng. had been shown to be completely
helpless in face of Fr and had to submit to almost all of demands, even ones relating to Scot. But N
recognised realities of situation. Eng. could no longer sustain control of port and resources were
hopelessly overstretched. With Fr dominant in Scot and Eng. armed forces depleted, there was little
choice but for Eng. to make peace with H2.

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How successfully did Northumberland handle foreign policy
between 1550 and 1553?
Relations with Scotland
Soon after ToBoulogne hostilities with Scot brought to close but antagonisms and root causes of
conflict remained unresolved. April 1550 N undertook complete reorganisation of Scot border policy.
Made himself General Warden of the North and inspected borders in person. After lengthy
negotiations/pressure from Fr boundary finally restored March 1552 to line it held before H8's Scot
campaigns.…read more


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