How far were economic problems responsible for Stalin’s decision to replace the new economic policy in 1928 with the first five year plan?

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How far were economic problems responsible for Stalin's decision to replace the new
economic policy in 1928 with the first five year plan?
Reasons
1. Many regions of the USSR were backward. Stalin said that to be backward was to
be defeated and enslaved. `But if you are powerful, people must beware of you'
2. Stalin believed (with Lenin) that the USSR should `overtake and outstrip the capitalist
countries'. He believed in `Socialism in one country' ­ the USSR would become
strong enough to survive, then would take over the rest of the world.
3. He believed Germany would invade. In 1931, he prophesied: `We make good the
difference in 10 years or they crush us'.
4. The 5-year plans were very useful propaganda ­ for Communism and for Stalin.
1. To provide machinery - tractors etc. so that farming was more efficient and more food was
produced.
2. To catch up to the Western World and make Russia less dependant on the West for industrial
goods.
3. To have a strong industry capable of producing armaments so that Russia could defend itself from
attack.
Why did Stalin introduce
collectivisation?
End private land
ownership
Get rid of kulaks
To make farms more
effective- people could
go work in cites=
socialism achieved
Grain procurement
crisis 1928-9
Raise capital needed to
develop soviet industry
Provide foods to cities
Destroy political rivals
NEP
Policies/Measures
· Small businesses reopened to make profit-Ban on private trade removed
· State control of heavy industry
· Peasants paid tax on grain ­ sell surplus on open market-Bolsheviks made peace with
peasants -Grain requisition abolished
Political impact:

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Said was temporary
Resented as encouraged greed, independence & self-interest
Central control to be relaxed reverting back to capitalism- split Bolsheviks
Trotsky : "1st sign of disgeneration of Bolsheviks"
Economic Impact:
Industry boomed
o Markets reopened, more goods available & food shortages disappeared
o Famine ended
o Peasants cultivated more land, livestock increased & harvest doubled
o Coal & textile production doubled
o Electrification expanded
Industrial prices raise & agricultural fell
New currency
New class ­ Nepmen
By 1923 cereal production increased by 2.…read more

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Improvements in production of commodities left Russia behind Western nations
Ideological causes:
Socialism was only possible in a highly industrialised nation
Believed revolution should serve working class (wanted workers to prosper)
Political causes:
Inspired by collectivisation
Want a reputation to surpass that of Lenin
Concerned Russia unable to defend self…read more

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