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How effectively did the USA contain the spread of communism?


THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

Background:
Large island 160km from Florida.
American ally.
Americans owned most of the business and had a large naval base there.
American recreation ground.
1959 ­ after three year guerrilla campaign ­ Fidel Castro overthrow the…

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October Crisis:
14th October 1962 ­ American U-2 spy plane flew over Cuba ­ photos of missile sites in
Cuba.
Evident that they were nuclear missile sites being built by the USSR.
More photos confirmed this.
Some were already supplied with missiles ­ others were waiting for them.
Experts said…

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To get the upper hand in the arms race ­ concerned about the missile gap between the USSR
and USA.

Outcome:
Cuba remained Communist and highly armed but nuclear missiles were withdrawn with UN
supervision.
Khrushchev had an improved reputation in his country and claimed a personal victory ­ that…

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1955 ­ Americans helped Ngo Dinh Diem to set up the Republic of South Vietnam ­ he was
bitterly anti-Communist and was willing to imprison or exile Communists.
Treated peasants with no respect ­ came from landlord class.
Showed little respect for the Buddhist religion of most peasants ­ was…

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1966-71 ­ 27,000 SV civilians killed by Viet Cong.
Never gave up.

US Tactics:
Bombing:
1965 ­ Operation Rolling Thunder ­ bombing raids on industrial and military targets ­
trying to force Ho Chi Minh to negotiate ­ failed to do this.
Continued until 1972 ­ bombed North and South…

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Demonstrations and sit-ins at universities ­ 4 shot dead in Kent State University (Ohio) at a
demonstration by the National Guard.

My Lai Massacre (1968):
Search and destroy mission in My Lai ­ told there was a VC HQ there with 200 VC guerrillas.
Told that the villagers would have…

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Damaged crops ­ food shortages.
Destroyed 5.4 million acres of forest areas and the species living there.
Poisoned streams/rivers.
US Troops:
Drug addiction ­ Hard drugs available easily in Vietnam ­ heroin use by US troops at 30%.
Confusion and bitterness ­ not welcomed home like after WW2 ­ difficulty…

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