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Dilute solutions (as little as 1%) of iodine work in much the same way
the chlorine described above. Looking at a periodic chart, you'll even
notice that chlorine and iodine are in the same halogen family, hence
their common mode of action. Negatively charged iodine combines with
proteins and disrupts their ability to function normally.
Ethanol (an ingredient in table wine) and Isopropanol (also known as
rubbing alcohol and poisonous to humans) are very commonly used.
These disinfectants disrupt the structure of proteins in the bacteria. If
the proteins are disrupted, or denatured, they cannot perform their
highly specific tasks, and the bacterium dies.