HOW ARE PLANT CELLS DIFFERENT FROM ANIMAL CELLS?

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  • Created on: 18-03-13 21:20
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HOW ARE PLANT CELLS DIFFERENT FROM ANIMAL CELLS?
There are two fundamental differences:
The plant cell has a rigid cell wall
The plant cell contains chloroplasts.
Organelles that animals don't have:
CELL WALL a rigid structure that surrounds the plant cells ­ made mainly of the carbohydrate
cellulose. Function: Supports plant cells.
MIDDLE LAMELLA the outermost layer of the cell. Function:
This layer acts as an adhesive, sticking adjacent plant cells together. It gives the plant stability.
PLASMODESMATA Channels in the cell walls that link adjacent cells together. Function: Allow
transport of substances and communication between cells.
PITS Regions of the cell wall where the wall is very thin. Arranged in pairs ­ the pit in one cell is lined
up with the pit in the adjacent cell. Function: Allow transport of substances between cells.
CHLOROPLAST A small flattened structure, surrounded by a double membrane and also has
membranes inside called thylakoid membranes ­ this stack up to form grana. Grana are linked by lamellae ­ thin, flat pieces of thylakoid membrane. Function:
The site of photosynthesis. Some of this happens in the grana and other parts happen in the stroma (thick fluid found in chloroplast)
AMYLOPLAST Small organelle enclosed by a membrane and contains starch granules. Function: Storage
of starch grains. They also convert starch back to glucose for release when the plant requires it.
VACUOLE AND TONOPLAST the vacuole is a compartment surrounded by a membrane called the tonoplast.
Function: Contains the cell sap which is made up of water, enzymes, minerals and waste products. Keeps the cell turgid (stopping the plant from wilting). Involved
in the breakdown and isolation of unwanted chemicals in the cell. The tonoplast controls what enters and leaves the vacuole.

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